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Melillo Childhood Neurodevelomental Disorders > ADHD > Flashcards

Flashcards in ADHD Deck (28)
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1

What is the leading childhood disorder in the world?

ADHD (10-11% of kids)

2

What is the number one reason a child will be medicated?

ADHD

3

What are the comorbidities of ADHD?

OCD, Tourette's, depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disorder, substance abuse

4

What is the ratio of boys to girls affected?

3:1 boys to girls

5

What percent of kids with ADHD still have it as an adult?

85%

6

How many years reduced life expectancy if have ADHD as adult?

13 years

7

How many years reduced life expectancy if have ADHD as child?

9.5 years

8

What is Type 1 ADHD? What part of brain?

Inattentive (classic) ADHD, affects DLPFC

9

What is Type 2 ADHD? What part of brain?

Hyperactive - Impulsive ADHD, affects OFC

10

What is Type 3 ADHD? What part of brain?

Combined (1 & 2), affects both DLPFC & OFC; underdeveloped on right & left side is overdeveloped)

11

What is DMS criteria for ADHD?

subjective, based on history, no lab test or even standard test; Brown scale, must exhibit below criteria in at least 2 different environments (school, home, etc.)

12

What is the most common type of ADHD?

Combined (type 3)

13

What are the DSM characteristics of Type 1 ADHD?

easily distracted, doesn't pay attention to detail, doesn't listen when spoken to, makes careless mistakes, doesn't follow through on tasks/instructions, forgetful, avoids/dislikes activities requiring longer periods of mental effort

14

What are the DSM characteristics of Type 2 ADHD?

restless, fidgets/squirms, runs & climbs & unable to stay seated, blurts out answers before hearing entire question, has difficulty playing quietly, talks excessively, interrupts others, has difficulty waiting in line or for a turn

15

What is the conventional treatment for ADHD?

medication (stimulants, antidepressants, clonidine)

16

What should be done before starting ADHD medication? Why?

AHA recommends EKG because 500% increased risk of cardiac death!

17

What does it mean if an ADHD kid responds to stimulants?

almost always a right brain deficit

18

What does it mean if an ADHD kid does not respond to stimulants?

it's typically a left brain deficit

19

How long does Ritalin help?

positive results for first 14 months
little difference by 3 years
no difference by 8 years

20

Do ADHD meds improve kids' grades in school?

No according to July 2013 study in Wall Street Journal

21

What are the 5 Types of Attention?

(1) Vigilance
(2) Sustained attention
(3) Alertness
(4) Focused attention
(5) Divided attention

22

Which type(s) of attention is governed by the left brain?

Focused attention (short term, reward reinforced)

23

Which type(s) of attention are governed by the right brain?

Vigilance, Sustained, Alertness, Divided (long term, non-reward based)
*both hemispheres are involved in divided attention but clear primary role is played by the right hemisphere (esp. right DLPFC)

24

Which neurotransmitters are predominantly Right brain? (more receptors for these NTs in the Right brain)

Norepinephrine & Serotonin

25

Which neurotransmitters are predominantly Left brain? (more receptors for these NTs in the Left brain)

Dopamine & Acetylcholine

26

What are the names of the scales used to assess for ADHD?

Brown scale (for medical professionals)
Conner scale (for non-medical)
WIAT (Weschler Individual Achievement Test) = academic assessment in 130 subject areas

27

Commission errors are committed by?

Impulsive (Type 2) ADHD
right OFC delay temporal lobe

28

Omission errors are committed by?

Inattention (Type 1) ADHD
left?? DLPFC delay parietal lobe