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Gabe's Endocrinology > Adolescent development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Adolescent development Deck (32)
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What is the age bracket of adolescence?

  • Adolescents = 10-19yo
  • Youth = 15-24yo
  • Young People = 10-24yo



What are the 3 stages of adolescent development?

  • Early: 10-14y.o.
  • Middle: 15-16y.o.
  • Late: 17y.o.+



What are the other definitions of adolescence?

  • Onset of puberty until achievement of economic independence
  • Cross-cultural considerations


What are the developmental tasks of adolescence?

  • Achieving independence from parents/other adults
  • Development of a realistic, stable, positive self-identity
  • Formation of a sexual identity
  • Negotiating peer and intimate relationships
  • Development of a realistic body image
  • Formulation of own moral/value system
  • Acquisition of skills for future economic independence


What are the different domains of adolescent development?

  • Physical
  • Social/Emotional
  • Cognitive


What are the different physical developments in adolescence?

  • Rapid physical growth
  • Reproductive capabilities
  • Secondary sexual characteristics


What happens to peer relationships in adolescence?

  • Peer interaction occupies more time than in middle childhood
  • Basis for friendships changes
    • Shared interests, values, beliefs, attitudes
  • Friendships with same and opposite sex
  • First romantic/sexual relationship for many
  • Increased reliance on friends for support
  • Close and supportive friendships contribute to positive psychological adjustment


What happens to family relationships in adolescence?

  • Renegotiation of relationships as adolescents strive for increased autonomy
  • Parent-child conflict increases:
    • Centring around self-governance issues
    • “Testing out” new reasoning skills
  • Authoritative parenting style associated with better adolescent adjustment


What is the difference between parents and peers to adolescents?

  • Parents/Adolescents – shared values
  • Adolescents consult parents vs. peers for advice about:
  • Peers:
    • What to wear
    • Which interests to pursue
    • Which social activities to attend
  • Parents:
    • Academic/Occupational goals
    • Other future-oriented decisions
      • Peer Pressure


What cognitive developments occur during adolescence?

  • Thinking about possibilities
  • Thinking through hypotheses
  • Thinking ahead
  • Thinking about thought
  • Thinking beyond conventional limits


What happens to self-concept during adolescence?

  • Incorporate psychological terms into self-description
    • Personality attributes, roles, goals, interests, values, beliefs
  • Describe attributes in a variety of domains – e.g.:
    • Academic competence, athletic competence, job competence, physical appearance, social acceptance, friendships, romantic appeal
  • Recognition of “different selves” across contexts
    • “I’m shy with boys, but you can’t shut me up with my friends”


What does an increased understanding of self often result in?



What is important to self-esteem?

Peer acceptance


What is low self-esteem associated with?

Difficulties including depression, suicide, eating disorders, antisocial behaviour


What 3 different elements contribute to self-esteem in adolescent development?

  • Increased understanding of self
  • Social comparison
  • Peer acceptance


What happens to social comparison in adolescent development?

  • With developments in social cognition, start to ask “how do I measure up?” against peers across domains
  • Children compare themselves against peers even when nobody else explicitly makes the comparison


What notable developments of the pre-frontal cortex occur during adolescence?

  • Notable developments in pre-frontal cortex – controlling executive functions
    • Planning
    • Impulse Control
    • Reasoning


How long does brain development occur?

Extends into the adolescent years (and beyond)


What are the 6 big risks for adolescent health?

  • Unintentional Injuries (accidents)
  • Intentional Injuries (violence, suicide)
  • Risky Sexual Behaviours
  • Substance Use
  • Unhealthy Diet
  • Inadequate Physical Activity


Which gender is more at risk healthwise during adolescent development?



What are the major causes of death in adolescence?

  • Leading cause of death (66%) among12-24yo = Injury
  • Predominantly
    • Transport Accidents
    • Suicide
  • Differs from population in general


What are the major mental health problems in adolescence?

  • Onset of a number of mental health difficulties commonly seen in adolescence – e.g.:
    • Eating Disorders
    • Substance Abuse
    • Depression
    • Suicide


What are the 3 most prevalent chronic illnesses during adolescence?

  1. Serious mental health problems
  2. ADHD
  3. Asthma (respiratory conditions)


What are different dimensions of chronic illness?

  • Duration
  • Age of onset
  • Limitation of activities
  • Visibility
  • Expected survival
  • Mobility
  • Physiological functioning
  • Cognition
  • Emotional/Social
  • Sensory functioning
  • Communication Course
  • Uncertainty Stigma Pain


What is the impact of chronic illness on achieving independence from parents/other adults?

  • Parental assistance with physio (and other care).
  • Time in hospital (with parents).


What is the impact of chronic illness on development of a realistic, stable, positive self-identity and body image?

Delayed puberty, difficulty putting on weight, other physical impacts of illness and treatment.


What is the impact of chronic illness on development of negotiating peer and intimate relationships?

  • Time in hospital (away from peers)
  • Questions about life expectancy and fertility
  • Fatigue/lethargy
  • Physical impact of illness and treatment


What is the impact of chronic illness on formulation of own moral/value system?

Questions about fertility and life expectancy


What is the impact of chronic illness on acquisition of skills for future economic independence?

  • Missing school
  • Feeling unwell/tired at school
  • Future impact of health on occupational functioning
  • Questions about life expectancy


What happens to adherence in adolescence?

Adherence difficulties increase