Flashcards in Imaging of the Head and Neck Deck (17)
What are plain film X-rays used mostly for?
Facial, sinus and cervical spine x-rays
What imaging modality has largely eliminated the need for plain film X-rays of the head and neck?
What is digital subtraction catheter angiography used for?
Vascular tumour assessment and embolisation
What is the mainstay of imaging the head and neck?
CT (computer-aided tomography)
What is CT able to image?
Soft tissues, muscle, fat, bones and orbits.
What is the disadvantage of CT?
Uses ionising radiation
When is ultrasound used?
For thyroid, submandibular glands, lumps and bumps and carotid arteries.
What does MRI use?
Non-ionising magnetic radiation to image hydrogen protons (mostly in water)
Where is MRI most useful in the head and neck?
For the base of the skull and cervical spine.
Where is MRI increasingly used?
In oral cavity cancers and vascular imaging.
What is nuclear medicine used for?
Thyroid scans, parathyroid scans, PET/SPECT scans and bone scans.
What is a dacrocystogram?
Injection of X-ray contrast into the lacrimal duct to visualise it.
What is the face best imaged with? Why?
CT - excellent delineation of bony anatomy
What is an orthopantomogram?
A panoramic X-ray of mouth/mandible to allow visualisation of the teeth.
What is the thyroid imaged with?
Ultrasound, CT/CT angiography, MR/MR angiography, digital subtraction angiography.
What are temporal bones best imaged with?
Thin slice CT scans due to the complicated bony anatomy of the region.