Adrenergic-Blocking Drugs Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology: Autonomic Nervous System Drugs > Adrenergic-Blocking Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Adrenergic-Blocking Drugs Deck (28):
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acrocyanosis

decreased amount of oxygen delivered to the extremities, causing the feet or hands to turn blue

1

adrenergic receptors

specific receptor sites located throughout the body for the endogenous sympathetic neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine

2

agonists

drugs with a specific receptor affinity that mimic the body's natural chemicals (e.g. hormones, neurotransmitters)

3

angina

paroxysmal (sudden) chest pain caused by myocardial ischaemia

4

antagonists

drugs that bind to specific receptors and inhibit or block the response of the receptors

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dysrhythmias

irregular heart rhythms; almost always called arrhythmias in clinical practice

6

extravasation

the leaking of fluid from blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, as in the case of an infiltrated intravenous infusion

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first-dose phenomenon

severe and sudden drop in blood pressure after administration of the first dose of an alpha-adrenergic blocker

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intristic sympathomimetic activity

the paradoxical action of some beta-blocking drugs (e.g. acebutolol) that mimics the action of the sympathetic nervous system

9

lipophilicity

the chemical attraction of a substance (e.g. a drug molecule) to lipid or fat molecules

10

orthostatic hypotension

a sudden drop in blood pressure when a person stands up; also referred to as postural hypotension or orthostasis

11

pheochromocytoma

a vascular adrenal gland tumour that is usually benign but secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine and this often causes central nervous system stimulation and substantial bolo pressure elevation

12

Raynaud's disease

a narrowing of small arteries that limits the amount of blood circulation to the extremities, causing numbness of the nose, fingers, toes, and ears in response to cold temperatures

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sympatholytics

drugs that inhibit the postganglionic functioning of the sympathetic nervous system

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adrenergic-blocking drugs: alpha1 blockers

alfuzosin [Uroxatral], doxazosin [Cardura], phenoxybenzamine [Dibenzyline], phentolamine [generic], prazosin [Minipress], terazosin [Hytrin], tamsulosin [Flomax]

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adrenergic-blocking drugs: beta blockers (non-selective)

carvedilol [Coreg, Coreg CR], labetalol [Normodyne, Trandate], nadolol [Corgard], penbutolol [Levatol], pindolol [Visken], propranolol [Inderal], sotalol [Betapace], timolol [Blocadren, Timoptic]

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adrenergic-blocking drugs: beta blockers (cardio-selective)

acebutolol [Sectral], atenolol [Tenormin], betaxolol [Kerlone], bisoprolol [Zebeta], esmolol [Brevibloc], nebivolol [Bystolic], metroprolol [Lopressor, Toprol-XL]

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alpha blockers adverse effects: cardiovascular system

palpitations, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, oedema, chest pain

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alpha blockers adverse effects: central nervous system

dizziness, headache, anxiety, depression, weakness, numbness, fatigue

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alpha blockers adverse effects: gastrointestinal system

nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, abdominal pain

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alpha blockers adverse effects: other

incontinence, dry mouth, pharyngitis

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beta blockers adverse effects: cardiovascular system

atrioventricular bloom, bradycardia, heart failure

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beta blockers adverse effects: central nervous system

dizziness, fatigue, depression, drowsiness, unusual dreams

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beta blockers adverse effects: gastrointestinal system

nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhoea

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beta blockers adverse effects: haematologic

agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia

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beta blockers adverse effects: metabolic

hyperglycaemia and/or hypoglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia

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beta blockers adverse effects: other

impotence, alopecia, bronchospasm, wheezing, dry mouth

27

adrenergic-blocking drugs

atenolol, carvedilol, esmolol, labetalol, metoprolol, phentolamine, propranolol, sotalol, tamsulosin