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Pharmacology: Autonomic Nervous System Drugs > Cholinergic Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cholinergic Drugs Deck (18):
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acetylcholine

the neurotransmitter responsible for transmission of nerve impulses to effector cells in the parasympathetic nervous system

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acetylcholinesterase

the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine (also referred to as as cholinesterase)

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Alzheimer's disease

a disease of the brain that is characterised by progressive mental deterioration manifested by confusion, disorientation, and loss of memory, ability to calculate, and visual-spatial orientation

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atony

a lack of normal muscle tone

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cholinergic crisis

severe muscles weakness and respiratory paralysis due to excessive acetylcholine; often seen in patients with myasthenia gravis as an adverse effect of drugs used to treat the disorder

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cholinergic receptor

a nerve receptor that is stimulated by acetylcholine

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miosis

the contraction of the pupil

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muscarinic receptors

cholinergic receptors that are located post-synaptically in the effector organs such as smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands supplied by parasympathetic fibers

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nicotinic receptors

cholinergic receptors located on the ganglia (where presynaptic and postsynaptic nerve fibers meet) of both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system; so named because they can be stimulated by the alkaloid nicotine

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parasympathomimetics

drugs that mimic the parasympathetic nervous system; also referred to as cholinergic agonist drugs

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cholinergic drugs: direct-acting drugs

bethanechol [Urecholine], carbachol [Carboptic], pilocarpine [Salagen, Pilocar], succinylcholine [Anectine, Quelicin]

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cholinergic drugs: indirect-acting drugs

donepezil [Aricept], echothiophate [Phospholine Iodide], edrophonium [Tensilon], galantamine [Razadyne], neostigmine [Prostigmin], physostigmine [Antilorium], pyridostigmine [Mestinon], rivastigmine [Exelon], tacrine [Cognex]

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cholinergic agonist adverse effects: cardiovascular system

bradycardia or tachycardia, hypotension or hypertension, syncope, conduction abnormalities (atrioventricular block and cardiac arrest)

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cholinergic agonist adverse effects: central nervous system

headache, dizziness, convulsions, ataxia

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cholinergic agonist adverse effects: gastrointestinal system

abdominal cramps, increased secretions, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea

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cholinergic agonist adverse effects: respiratory system

increased bronchial secretions, bronchospasm

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cholinergic agonist adverse effects: other

lacrimation, sweating, salivation, miosis

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cholinergic drugs

bethanechol, donepezil, memantine, pyridostigmine