ADVERSE RXNs, HEAVY MTLS Flashcards Preview

PA 2307- Mod 8 > ADVERSE RXNs, HEAVY MTLS > Flashcards

Flashcards in ADVERSE RXNs, HEAVY MTLS Deck (33)
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1

what increases the risk of adverse drug rxns (3)

-pts over 60
-women>men
-multiple drug therapy

2

what are the pharmacokinetic mechanisms for drug interactions (4)

GIT absorbtion
Drug distribution
Biotransformation
Renal Excretion

3

What is the threshold limit value in industry

value descrubes the permitted exposure usually weighted for an 8 hr period (substance per cubic meter air)

4

what does 1ppm mean

1 miligram per kilogram

5

what is NOAEL and LOAEL

no observable adverse events level
low observable adverse events level

6

What is the calculation for safe human dose

NOAEL/Uncertentiy factors

7

What is the non biological factors of metals

tendency to ionize
1st time= end with ous
2nd time= end with ic

8

trivalent chromium vs hexavalent chromium- toxicity

tri- relatively non toxic
hexa- toxic and carcinogenic

9

what form of lead, tin, mercury absorb more redialy

Organic forms

10

Rank order of toxicity: elemental mercury, methyl mercury, divalent mercury

methly> elemental> divalent

11

what does acute exposure to Hg cause (4)

Hg affinity for SH groups- causing disruption of cell membranes
-displacement of other cations
-reduction in mito glutathione
-effect on peripheral motor neurons

12

What are the negative effects of lead

Hematopoetic toxicity- reduced heme/ hemaglobin

Interference w synaptic function/ nts

Nephrotoxic

13

What are the negative effects of cadmium

-irritation of GIT
-highly nephrotoxic in prox tubule
-disturbance in calcium metabolism (cause osteomalacia)

14

what does inhalation of arsenic lead to

inhalation leads to lung cancer

15

What are the negative effects of arsenic

-vascular lesions
-GIT irratation
-affect on peripheral motor neurons
-headache/confusion
-liver jaundice/cirrhosis
-mees lines in nails

16

Negative effects of chromium

Respiratory major target for organ toxicity
Carcinogenic- lung and GI

17

Negative effects of beryllium

inhalation route of exposure
-lung fibrosis, pneumonitis, cardiomegaly

18

what is lithium used for

bipolar manic depressive

19

What is platin used for

inhibits cell div

20

What is gold used for

rheumatoid arthritis

21

What is silver used for

bactericidal eye creame for newborns

22

What is cheation and how is it excreted

Formation of metal ion complexes with ligand to detoxify

23

What does ethylene diamine tetraacetitic acid chelate

lead

24

What was british anti lewisite used for

chelate antidote against arsenic, mercury, antimony, chromium, cadium, gold, nickel

25

What is penicillamine used to chelate

copper

26

What was desferrioxamine use to chelate

iron

27

what are the 3 major urban pollutants

1. total suspended particulate matter
2. Sulfur oxides
3. ground level ozone

28

What is arthropogenic material

created by human activuty

29

whtat is sick building syndrome and what does it cause

poor ventilation
--eyes, nose, headache, fatigue, reduced attention span, irritability, nosebleeds

30

what type of polution is dickens londons particular

sulfur dioxide and smoke from incomplete combustion of coal - reducing type

31

what type of polution is los angles

oxident type consisting of hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen- contributes to ground level ozone

32

What is photochemical air pollution

when exposed to light NO molecules split and great reactive oxygen with reacts w oxygen in air to make ozone (cycle)

33

Drugs that affect bronchial mm contraction

-antihistamines
-synpathomimetic agents
-beta 2 selective adreno receptor agonists
-anticholinergic drugs
-calcium channel blockers
-anti inflammatory steroids