aerobic and anaerobic respiration Flashcards Preview

Biology additional > aerobic and anaerobic respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in aerobic and anaerobic respiration Deck (10):
1

What is respiration?

respiration is the process of releasing energy from glucose which goes on in every cell.

2

What is aerobic respiration?

aerobic respiration is respiration using oxygen, it is the most efficient way to release energy from glucose and it happens inside mitochondria.

3

What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?

glucose+oxygen--> carbon dioxide + water + ENERGY

4

What is the energy released by aerobic respiration used for?

1/ to build larger molecules from smaller ones (like proteins and amino acids)
2/ in animals, to allow muscles to contract
3/ in mammals and birds the energy is used to keep their body temperature steady
4/ In plants, to build sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids, which are then built up into proteins.

5

How does exercise increase the heart rate?

muscle cells use oxygen to release energy from glucose, which is used to contract the muscle. During vigorous exercise, muscles need more glucose and oxygen and extra carbon dioxide needs to be removed from the muscle cells. For this to happen the blood has to flow at a faster rate to carry the oxygen to the muscles and to remove carbon dioxide. So therefore the speed at which the heart pumps increases.

6

What is glycogen and what is it used for?

Glycogen is stored glucose in the liver that has come from food. Each muscle has its own source of glycogen so during exercise when glucose is used rapidly some of the stored glycogen can be converted back to glucose to provide more energy.

7

What is anaerobic respiration?

When you do vigorous exercise your body can't supply you with enough oxygen to your muscles so they do anaerobic respiration. 'Anaerobic' means without oxygen and it is simply just the incomplete breakdown of glucose.

8

What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?

glucose--> energy + lactic acid

9

Why is anaerobic respiration not the best way to convert glucose into energy?

because lactic acid builds up in the muscles which gets painful. It also causes muscle fatigue- the muscles get tired and stop contracting efficiently.

Anaerobic respiration also does not release as much energy. But it does keep your muscles going for longer.

10

What is an oxygen debt?

an oxygen is debt is the oxygen you have to repay your muscles with because the oxygen did not get to your muscles in time as your lungs, heart and blood couldn't keep up with demand earlier on.
You have to keep breathing hard for a while after you stop, to get more oxygen into your blood. Blood flows through the muscles to remove the lactic acid by oxidising it to harmless co2 and water.