Mean Temperature Lapse Rate
-1.98C per 1,000'
What are the three physiological zones of the atmosphere?
Efficient Zone (SFC-10,000' MSL) Deficient Zone (10,000'-50,000' MSL) Space-Equivalent Zone (>50,000' MSL)
Without supplemental oxygen, night vision decreases at what altitude?
What do Red Blood Cells do?
Transport oxygen and CO2 throughout the body.
What attracts the oxygen molecules?
What do White Blood Cells do?
Fight infection and heal diseased tissue
The result of the body's lack of oxygen.
What are the four types of hypoxia?
Hypoxic Hypemic Stagnant Histotoxic
What is HYPOXIC Hypoxia?
Results from insufficient oxygen in the air, or a decrease in partial pressure to where the lungs cannot capture sufficient oxygen. (High altitude, oxygen displaced by other gasses, etc.)
What is HYPEMIC Hypoxia?
Reduction in blood cells' carrying capacity. Inability of the blood to accept sufficient oxygen from the lungs. (CO2, blood loss, etc.)
What is STAGNANT Hypoxia?
Reduced blood flow. Blood cannot transport oxygen. (High G Maneuver, Constricted limbs, etc.)
What is HISTOTOXIC Hypoxia?
Inability of a cell to accept or utilize oxygen. (Cyanide, poison, etc.)
Name at least five symptoms of hypoxia. (Symptoms are subjective)
Increased breathing / apprehension / fatigue / headache / dizziness / hot and cold flashes / euphoria / belligerence / blurred vision / tunnel vision / numbness / tingling
Name at least three signs of hypoxia. (Signs are objective)
Hyperventilation / cyanosis / mental confusion / poor judgement / lack of muscle coordination
The nonspecific response of the body to any demand
What are the four categories of stressors?
Psychosocial Environmental Physiological (self-imposed) DEATH Cognitive (mental)
What are some psychosocial stressors?
Life events Job stress Illness Family issues
What are some environmental stressors?
Altitude Airspeed Temperature Aircraft design IMC
What is the acronym for Physiological stressors?
DEATH Drugs Exhaustion Alcohol Tobacco Hypoglycemia
For 'drugs' within the physiological stressors (DEATH), what are the specific concerns?
Self medication Predictable side effects Overdose problems Allergic reactions Synergistic affects Caffeine
What are the peak and trough hours in the typical circadian sleep cycle?
0800-1200 Peak 1300-1500 Drop 1500-2100 Increase 0300-0600 Trough
What is the accepted minimum sleep requirement for continuous operations?
What are the stress management techniques?
Avoid stressors Change thinking Learn to relax Ventilate stress
The state of feeling tired, weary, or sleepy that results from prolonged periods of mental or physical work, extended periods of anxiety, exposure to harsh environments, or loss of sleep
What are the three types (levels) of fatigue?
Acute (between two sleep cycles) Chronic Motivational exhaustion (burnout)
What are some effects of fatigue on performance?
Reaction time Reduced attention Diminished memory Changes in mood Impaired communication
What are the two sensors in the eye that are stimulated by light?
Cones are used when and perceive what light?
Rods are used when and perceive what light?
Night. Shades of gray.
What chemical do RODS use?
What chemicals do CONES use?
Which of the two chemicals which allow us to see is extremely sensitive to light?
On average, how long does it take to dark adapt? Why?
30-45 minutes. Build up rhodopsin in the rods.
What are the three types of vision?
Photopic Mesopic Scotopic
When is Photopic vision used? Rods or cones?
Daytime or during periods high-intensity lighting. Cones
When is mesopic vision used? Rods or cones?
Dawn/Dusk/full moonlight. Both
When is Scotopic vision used? Rods or cones?
Nighttime or during periods of low intensity lighting. Rods.
What is the recommendation on cockpit lighting during night flight?
Instruments and cockpit lighting should be adjusted to the lowest readable setting that allows charts and instruments to be interpreted without prolonged staring.
Where is the night blind spot? Why?
Center of vision (focus). No rods, only cones.
Where is the day blind spot? Why?
15 degrees off the center of vision. Optic nerve, neither rods nor cones present.
_____________ is when the eyes attempt to simultaneously perceive dissimilar objects independently.
Retinal Rivalry. This gets easier with experience.
Distance Estimation and Depth Perception What are the two categories of cues?
Binocular Cues Monocular Cues
Distance Estimation and Depth Perception What are binocular cues?
Difference in angle of perception caused by the separation of the eyes. This allows the brain to perceive depth.
Distance Estimation and Depth Perception What are the four categories of monocular cues? Acronym?
GRAM Geometric Perspective Retinal Image Size Aerial Perspective Motion Parallax
Distance Estimation and Depth Perception Monocular cues - GRAM Geometric perspective - what are the cues? Acronym?
LAV Linear Perspective Apparent Foreshortening Vertical Position in the Field
Distance Estimation and Depth Perception Monocular cues - GRAM Retinal Image Size - what are the cues? Acronym?
KITO Known Size of Objects Increasing / Decreasing Size of Objects Terrestrial Association Overlapping Contours
Distance Estimation and Depth Perception Monocular Cues - GRAM Aerial Perspective - what are the cues? Acronym?
FLP Fading of Colors or Shades Loss of Detail or Texture Position of Light Source and Direction of Shadows
Consuming one alcoholic beverage increases physiological altitude by how much?
Smoking increases your physiological altitude by how much?
Define SPATIAL DISORIENTATION.
An individual's inability to determine his or her position, attitude, and motion relative the earth's surface.
Define SENSORY ILLUSION.
A false perception of reality caused by the conflict of orientation information derived from one or more equilibrium mechanisms.
What are the three equilibrium maintenance mechanisms?
Visual Vestibular Proprioceptive
What is the most important equilibrium maintenance mechanism? How much of your equilibrium calculation does it account for?
What are the two major 'pieces' of the inner ear that contribute to equilibrium calculation?
Semi-circular canals Vestibule Proper (to include otolith organs)
What are the prevention techniques for spatial disorientation?
- never fly VMC and IMC simultaneously - trust your instruments - avoid self-imposed stressors
What are the treatment methods for spatial disorientation?
- refer to your flight instruments, cross check - delay intuitive actions - transfer flight controls
What are the visual illusions? Acronym?
FFFCRASHCARS Flicker Vertigo <> Fascination / Fixation <> False Horizon <> Confusion with Ground Lights <> Relative Motion <> Altered Plane of Reference <> Structural Illusion <> Height-Depth Perception <> Crater Illusion <> Autokinesis <> Reversible Perspective <> Size Distance Illusion
Name the Type & Illusion. You are flying south and a warm front is moving north. The cloud formation in the distance is sloped. You realize after a couple minutes that you are 8 degrees off level, and determine it was due to the clouds.
Visual Illusion False Horizon
Name the Type & Illusion. You are flying VFR at night along the cost. You believe you are looking at stars until your LO BUG goes off.
Visual Illusion Confusion with Ground Lights
What are the three types of spatial disorientation?
Type 1 (unrecognized) Type 2 (recognized) Type 3 (incapacitating)
What is the most dangerous type of visual illusion? Why?
Type 1 (unrecognized) Pilot fails to make appropriate inputs
Name the Type & Illusion You are conducting terrain flight VFR in the daytime and it begins to rain. Through the canopy, it becomes apparent that you can no longer determine the ridges and obstacles.
Visual Illusion Structural Illusion
Name the Type & Illusion You are practicing slope landings at night and forget to turn your searchlight off. As you descend, you become disoriented with regards to your altitude and the terrain.
Visual Illusion Crater Illusion
Name the Type & Illusion You are take fire from you 8 o'clock and execute a pitch back turn to engage with rockets and 30mm. You swarm and go through your 4 T's, fire a pair of rockets and miss by 70 meters. As your CPG calls out the correction and you are making your adjustments, the LO BUG goes off.
Visual Illusion Fixation (Fascination = inside the cockpit)
Name the a Type & Illusion While conducting a dusk training mission, you accidentally go IIMC. As you make your radio calls and climb, you begin to feel exceedingly nauseous from the strobe lights reflecting off the surrounding clouds.
Visual Illusions Flicker Vertigo
Name the Type & Illusion Your AWT is inbound to KSG for termination, turning final. You are Gun 2 staggered right at 5 rotor discs. Watching Gun 1, you sense you are accelerating and experience confusion when your airspeed says otherwise.
Visual Illusion Relative Motion Illusion
Name the Type & Illusion It is 1730 and you are westbound off KSG. On ATA, you hear an aircraft is inbound to CP DAM from the north. Sighting the aircraft, with the sun behind it, you experience confusion as you confirm its flight path as toward or away from you.
Visual Illusion Reversible Perspective
Name the Type & Illusion You are flying an MCSOFEX mission OW at night. You believe you see a light on the horizon which may be your target. Controlling you retinal rivalry, you wash out your system and focus on the light unaided. Suddenly, the light begins to change direction erratically.
Visual Illusion Autokinesis
What are the three types of vestibular illusions?
Somatogravic Somatogyral Proprioceptic
What is the Type and Illusion of the most common vestibular illusion?
What is the Type and Illusion of the most dangerous vestibular illusion?
Somatogyral Coriolis Illusion
Name the Type & Illusion You are flying east toward TAA TOM. You briefed flying the route at 800' MSL, but you keep finding yourself creeping up to 1,200'. Your PC tells you not to focus on the distant mountains and ridge line.
Visual Illusion Altered Planes of Reference
Name the Type & Illusion You are flying NVS over a long stretch of rice paddies and your LO BUG goes off. You realize that the lack of detail encouraged you to come too low.
Visual Illusion Height Depth Illusion
Name the Type & Illusion You are flying your first approach to TWY C at Kunsan AB. Your sight picture tells you that your altitude is fine, but your PC tells you that you need to come higher and slow down.
Visual Illusion Size Distance Illusion
How many hours are you prohibited from flying duties after drinking alcoholic beverages?
12 hours and until no residual effects remain
How long are you prohibited from flying duties after taking antihistamines or barbiturates?
How long are you prohibited from flying duties after donating blood (200cc or more)? Aviators _________ be regular blood donors
72 hours WILL NOT
How long are aviators prohibited from flying duties after immunizations?
How long are aviators prohibited from flying duties after a compression / decompression experience?
A structor or body designed to produce a reaction by its motion through the air