Aetiology of Cancer and Neoplasms I Flashcards Preview

IMS > Aetiology of Cancer and Neoplasms I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aetiology of Cancer and Neoplasms I Deck (71):
1

What is one defining feature of Cancer?

Rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond usual boundaries

2

What is the spreading of Cancer reffered to as?

Metastasis

3

What are Malignant Neoplasms?

Carcinoma in Situ and cancer

4

What is the difference with a Benign Tumour in terms of spreading?

Dont metastasize, remain encapsulated by connective tissue fibrous sheath

5

What are the 5 main groups of Cancer?

Carcinoma - skin
Lymphoma - Lymph
Leukaemia - blood
Sarcomas- connective tissue
CNS tumours - brain and spinal cord

6

How do Benign tumours appear microscopically?

Innocent, tumour staying localised and remains encapsulated

7

What are Malignant tumours?

Referred to as cancer, can invade and destroy structures, migrate to sites as they metastasize

8

What type of Benign tumour would Glands have suffix of?

Adenoma

9

What type of Benign tumour would Surfaces have suffix of?

Papilloma

10

What type of Benign tumour would Mucous surfaces have suffix of?

Polyp

11

What type of Benign tumour would Hollow masses have suffix of?

Cysadenoma

12

Where are Sarcoma cells in malignant tumours derived from?

Mesenchyme

13

Where are Carcinoma cells in malignant tumours derived from?

Epithelia

14

What 2 Tumours are definitely malignant?

Melanoma and Lymphoma

15

Why are Cancers bad for us?

Local tissue destruction
Obstruction/compression
Hormonal malregulation

16

How are Cancers classified?

Based on grade - how close cells resemble tissue of origin
Stage - how far spread from nidus

17

What is TNM in the common staging system?

Tumour size
Nodes involves
Metastasis

18

Why is Staging import?

For treatment and to factor 5 year survival rate

19

What test is used to Specify Tumours?

PAP test

20

What is a Neoplasm?

A mass formed by autonomous proliferation of cells or new growth

21

What does Abnormal proliferation of cells result in?

Neoplasm or tumour

22

Are neoplasms malignant?

Not all e.g uterine fibroids

23

What is Cell division dependant on?

Signals and Sensors

24

What happens of signals or sensors become damaged?

Cell division is unregulated can result in tumour

25

What are the 3 Main types of Body cells during cell division?

Cells that never divide
Cells that retain ability to divide but dont
Cells that routinely divide and can alter rate of division

26

How do Cells duplicate in a Eukaryotic cell?

Meiosis
Mitosis

27

What are the 4 Phases of Cell cycle?

G1
S phase
G2
M phase

28

What happens in G1?

High rate metabolism, proteins synthesis, organelles duplicate and centriole replicates

29

What happens in S phase?

DNA replicated, synthesis of new histones and assembly of new chromatin

30

What happens in G2 phase?

Synthesis of enzymes and proteins, replicate of centrioles done, transport

31

What happens in M phase?

Mitosis and splitting of genome

32

What are 2 critical points for dividing cell

G1/S boundary - dna synthesis
G2/m boundary - mitosis

33

What happens to cells that fail to undergo mitosis?

Apoptosis

34

What are the important factors that regulate entry of cell in S phase?

Cdk 2,4,6

35

What allows proper functioning of Cdk 2?

Cyclin E

36

What allows proper functioning of Cdk4,6?

Cyclin D

37

What do growth factors activate and produce?

Cyclin D

38

What does Cyclin D activate?

Cdk4

39

What does Cdk 4 do?

Phosphorylates pRband prevents inactivation of E25-1

40

What does E2F-1 do?

Binds with enhancer sequences activating transcription for dna synthesis

41

What happens to these regulations once the S phase begins?

pRB is dephosphorylated to prevent further rounds of DNA replication Cyclin D destroyed

42

In the G2/M phase what protein kinase is present?

Cdk 1 With Cyclin B

43

What does Cyclin B do?

Cell switch - modifies proteins
Sets in motion a sequence of changes
Activated only at G2/M boundary for mitosis

44

Post mitosis what happens to inactive heterodimer?

Phosphorylated at threonine 14, tyrosine 15

45

At the G2/M phase what removes phosphates?

Cdc25

46

What is Wee1?

Phosphorylation to ensure complete inactivation adding 2 phosphates to Cdk1 and thrty14,15

47

What does WEE1 prevent binding of?

ATP to Cdk1 - first step of phosphorylation of other proteins

48

What transcription factor activates gene coding?

E2F-1

49

In non-dividing cells why is E2F-1 inhibited?

Bound to protein pRb

50

What are 3 signals that lead to arrest of cell growth?

Mitogen withdrawal, Loss of adhesion, Contact inhibition

51

What 2 CKI's are inhibited to prevent DNA synthesis?

P16 ink4a P27kip1

52

What is P53?

Tumour surpressor gene found on chr 17 involved with dna repair

53

What does Increased conc of P53 activate?

DNA repair

54

What inhibits G1 CDK's?

p21 cipi1 to prevent replication of defective DNA

55

What is Apoptosis?

Programmed cell death

56

What is Apoptosis characterised by?

Cell shrinkage, Cell contents in blebs, Chopping up DNA, Secretion of cytokines

57

What is the Extrinsic pathway?

Instructed death - viral infection

58

What is the Intrinsic pathway?

Default death - absence of growth factors

59

What is stress activated apoptosis?

Direct activation of mitochondria and protein kinase P38

60

What is Senescence?

Irreversible cell cycle arrest

61

Whatr is replicative senscence?

Telomere dysfunction

62

What is stress induced senscence?

DNA damage p16

63

What is oncogene induced senescene?

Oncogene activation p53

64

What is replication stress induced senescence?

Haemophiatic stem cells

65

What is developmental senescence?

Embryogensis p21

66

What is cell-cell fusion?

Placental syncitiotrophoblast

67

What are telomeres?

Chr capping function, prevents ends of chr from seen as double stranded breaks

68

What is telomere shortening?

DNA polymerase cant lengthen terminal section

69

What is angiogenesis?

Own blood vessels for blood supply to cancer growth

70

What growth factors switch angiogenic factors on?

VEGFR , bFGF

71

What factors switch of anti-angiogenic factors?

Delta like ligand 4

Decks in IMS Class (53):