Aetiology of Cancer and Neoplasms II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Aetiology of Cancer and Neoplasms II Deck (41):
1

What are selfish cells?

Cancer cells with selective advantage over normal regulated cells

2

What is difference with cancer cells to normal?

Large no. dividing
Large nuclei variable
Small cytoplasmic volume
Variation in cell size and shape
Loss of specialised cell features
Disorganised arrangements
Poorly defined boundary

3

What are doublings?

tumour cell mass doubling in size

4

What is Carcinogenesis?

Process of inducing cancer

5

What is a change to DNA called?

Mutation

6

What are 6 hallmarks?

Resisting cell death
sustain proliferative signalling
Evading growth surpressors
Activate invasion and metastis
Enable replicative immortality
Induce angiogenesis

7

How do cancer cells sustain proliferative signalling?

Acquire mutations short circuit leading to unregulated growth

8

What is an e.g of sustaining proliferative signalling?

Mutation in Ras oncoprotein disrupts normal negative feedback

9

How do cancer cells evade growth suppressors?

Acquired mutations interfere with inhibitory pathways

10

What is an e.g of growth suppressor?

P53 inactivated

11

How do cancer cells resist cell death?

Evade apoptotic signals

12

What is an e.g of resisting cell death?

Dysregulation of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family

13

How do cancer cells enable replicative immortality?

Cancer cells maintain the length of their telomeres

14

what is an e.g of replicative immortality?

Overexpression of telomerase

15

How do cancer cells induce Angiogenesis?

Growth of new blood vessels need for tumour survival and expansion

16

How do Cancer cells activate invasion and metastasis?

Move to other parts of body and start secondary tumours

17

How does cancer grow and spread?

Duplicate and invade surrounding tissue, produces TAFs and competes with normal tissue killing it for space some cells detach to create secondary tumour

18

What are the 4 metastatic steps?

Motility and invasion from primary site
Embolism and circulation in blood or lymph system
Arrest in a distant capillary
Extravasation into target organ

19

What external stimulus do tumour cells use to metastasize?

Tumour associated macrophages TAMS that supply cancer with EGF epidermal growth factor and CSF-1

20

What are 4 Enabling hallmarks?

Deregulating cellular energetics
Avoiding immune destruction
Genome instability and mutation
Tumour promoting inflammation

21

How does genome instability and mutation work?

Several chromosomal abnormalities drive tumour progression

22

What is an eg of genome instability?

defects in BRCA 1/2 in breast cancer

23

How does tumour promoting inflammation work?

Inflammatory cytokines promote tumour growth

24

What is an eg of tumour promoting inflammation?

Promotes angiogenesis

25

How do cancer cells avoid immune destruction?

Invisible to bodys immune system -disable immune system and regulate Tregs and MDSCs

26

How do cancer cells deregulate cellular energetics?

Use abnormal metabolic pathways to generate energy - high rate of glycolysis

27

What is the Therapeutic target for Sustaining proliferative signalling?

EGFR inhibitors

28

What is the Therapeutic target for Evading growth surpressors?

Cyclin dependant kinase inhibitors

29

What is the Therapeutic target for Avoiding immune destruction?

Immune activating anti-CTLA4 mAb

30

What is the Therapeutic target for Enabling replicative immortality?

Telomerase inhibitors

31

What is the Therapeutic target for Tumour promoting inflammation?

Selective anti-inflammatory drugs

32

What is the Therapeutic target for activating invasion and metastasis?

Inhibitors of HGF/c-Met

33

What is the Therapeutic target for inducing angiogenesis?

Inhibitors of VEGF signalling

34

What is the Therapeutic target for genome instability and mutation?

PARP inhibitors

35

What is the Therapeutic target for Resisting cell death?

Proapoptotic BH3 mimetics

36

What is the Therapeutic target for Deregulating cellular energetics?

Aerobic glycolysis inhibitors

37

What 3 areas co-opt and form the Tumour stroma?

Vascular elements
Fibroblasts
Macrophages

38

What is a chemical agent or radiation that causes cancer?

Carcinogen

39

What are cancer causing genes called?

Oncogenes

40

Where are oncogenes derived from?

Proto-oncogenes

41

What are 3 carcinogenic agents?

Chemicals, Radiation, Microbiologicals

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