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Flashcards in airway A&P Deck (46)
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1

what structures are included in the upper airway?

-nose
-mouth
-pharynx
-hypopharynx (laryngopharynx sometimes just called larynx)
-larynx
-vocal cords
*above cricoid

2

what structures are included in the lower airway?

-trachea
-bronchi
-bronchioles
-terminal bronchioles
-respiratory bronchioles
-alveoli
*below cricoid

3

what are the 3 sections of the pharynx?

-nasopharynx
-oropharynx
-hypopharynx

4

what is the location of the nasopharynx?

-C1 level
-skull to soft palate

5

what is the location of the oropharynx?

-C2-C3 level
-soft palate to epiglottis

6

what is the location of the hypopharynx?

-C5-C6 level
-epiglottis to cricoid

7

where is the larynx located?

-between levels C4, C5, C6
*usually higher in females

8

what makes up the larynx?

-9 cartilages (3 single and 3 paired)

9

describe the 3 single cartilages that are found in the larynx

-thyroid cartilage (adam's apple)
-cricoid cartilage (forms a complete ring or signet ring; start of tracheal rings)
-epiglottis (protects airway from aspiration

10

what level is the cricoid cartilage usually found?

C6

11

describe the 3 paired cartilages found in the larynx

-corniculate cartilages (horn shaped)
-cuneiform cartilages (wedge shaped)
-arytenoid cartilages

12

what are the functions of the arytenoid cartilages?

attached to the abductor and adductor intrinsic muscles allowing anterior, posterior, and lateral vocal cord tissue movement

13

what are the 3 main functions of the larynx?

-protection of the lower airway
-facilitate respiration
-facilitate phonation

14

what makes up the anterior and lateral border of the upper airway?

thyroid cartilage

15

what makes up the posterior border?

posterior cricoid cartilage

16

describe the epiglottis

single, leaf-like cartilage above the glottis opening; closes during swallowing

17

where is the vallecula located?

area between the tongue and epiglottis

18

what is the function of the intrinsic muscles?

vocal cord tension, opening, and closing

19

what is the function of the extrinsic muscles?

-position
-phonation
-swallowing

20

describe the hyoid bone

-anchors and suspends larynx
-U shaped
-does not articulate with any other bone
-indirectly attaches to the styloid processes of the temporal bone via stylohyoid ligament
-indirectly attaches to the thyroid cartilage by the thyrohyoid membrane and muscle
-attached to intrinsic tongue muscles and pharyngeal constrictors

21

what are the laryngeal joints?

-cricothyroid joint
-cricoarytenoid joint

22

describe the cricothyroid joint and its function

-synovial joint
-articulation of inferior cornua of thyroid cartilage
-anterior/posterior sliding
*lengthens and tenses cords
*controls pitch

23

describe the cricoarytenoid joint and its function

-articulation between the base of the arytenoid cartilage and cricoid cartilage
-adducts and abducts the arytenoids while simultaneously rotating anterior and posterior

24

what common disease can affect airway joints?

any joint disease or progressive disease (rheumatoid arthritis)
*may present with raspy voice, hoarseness; joints may become inflamed and can narrow area between vocal cord ligaments leading to distress; changes airway anatomy
*know to suspect if affected fingers are noticed

25

what is the glottic opening?

-glottis: opening/inlet to trachea
-triangle in shape

26

what is the narrowest segment of the laryngeal opening in an adult?

glottis

27

what are the landmarks for finding the glottis?

-anterior landmark: vallecula
-posterior landmark: posterior aspect of arytenoid cartilage

28

what are the false vocal cords?

vestibular folds which are narrow bands of fibrous tissue on each side of the glottis

29

what are the true vocal cords?

pale, white ligament bands that attach to the thyroid anteriorly and the arytenoids posteriorly

30

describe the trachea

-C6, lower border of cricoid, to T5 carina
-10-15 cm in length
-16-20 horseshoe-shaped cartilage rings branching into the right and left bronchi at the 5th thoracic vertebra level
**flattened posteriorly (rings open posteriorly)
*cross-section of the trachea is larger than the glottis opening