Flashcards in airway A&P Deck (46)
what structures are included in the upper airway?
-hypopharynx (laryngopharynx sometimes just called larynx)
what structures are included in the lower airway?
what are the 3 sections of the pharynx?
what is the location of the nasopharynx?
-skull to soft palate
what is the location of the oropharynx?
-soft palate to epiglottis
what is the location of the hypopharynx?
-epiglottis to cricoid
where is the larynx located?
-between levels C4, C5, C6
*usually higher in females
what makes up the larynx?
-9 cartilages (3 single and 3 paired)
describe the 3 single cartilages that are found in the larynx
-thyroid cartilage (adam's apple)
-cricoid cartilage (forms a complete ring or signet ring; start of tracheal rings)
-epiglottis (protects airway from aspiration
what level is the cricoid cartilage usually found?
describe the 3 paired cartilages found in the larynx
-corniculate cartilages (horn shaped)
-cuneiform cartilages (wedge shaped)
what are the functions of the arytenoid cartilages?
attached to the abductor and adductor intrinsic muscles allowing anterior, posterior, and lateral vocal cord tissue movement
what are the 3 main functions of the larynx?
-protection of the lower airway
what makes up the anterior and lateral border of the upper airway?
what makes up the posterior border?
posterior cricoid cartilage
describe the epiglottis
single, leaf-like cartilage above the glottis opening; closes during swallowing
where is the vallecula located?
area between the tongue and epiglottis
what is the function of the intrinsic muscles?
vocal cord tension, opening, and closing
what is the function of the extrinsic muscles?
describe the hyoid bone
-anchors and suspends larynx
-does not articulate with any other bone
-indirectly attaches to the styloid processes of the temporal bone via stylohyoid ligament
-indirectly attaches to the thyroid cartilage by the thyrohyoid membrane and muscle
-attached to intrinsic tongue muscles and pharyngeal constrictors
what are the laryngeal joints?
describe the cricothyroid joint and its function
-articulation of inferior cornua of thyroid cartilage
*lengthens and tenses cords
describe the cricoarytenoid joint and its function
-articulation between the base of the arytenoid cartilage and cricoid cartilage
-adducts and abducts the arytenoids while simultaneously rotating anterior and posterior
what common disease can affect airway joints?
any joint disease or progressive disease (rheumatoid arthritis)
*may present with raspy voice, hoarseness; joints may become inflamed and can narrow area between vocal cord ligaments leading to distress; changes airway anatomy
*know to suspect if affected fingers are noticed
what is the glottic opening?
-glottis: opening/inlet to trachea
-triangle in shape
what is the narrowest segment of the laryngeal opening in an adult?
what are the landmarks for finding the glottis?
-anterior landmark: vallecula
-posterior landmark: posterior aspect of arytenoid cartilage
what are the false vocal cords?
vestibular folds which are narrow bands of fibrous tissue on each side of the glottis
what are the true vocal cords?
pale, white ligament bands that attach to the thyroid anteriorly and the arytenoids posteriorly