Flashcards in acids and bases and ABG interpretation Deck (77)
how can mechanical ventilation alter the acid/base balance?
its effect on PCO2
how can blood loss effect acid/base balance?
potential to impact the pH buffering ability because of lost hemoglobin
what is homeostasis of acid base balance based on?
a balance between....
-intake and production of H+
-removal and elimination of H+
why is H+ concentration essential?
-it is essential for proper functioning of enzymatic reactions
-cell functions are altered when H+ changes
-requires more precision regulation compared to other ions since it is lower than other ions in the body
ex: Na+ over 3.5 million times greater than H+
what is an acid?
a molecule that releases H+ ion
HA - H+ + A-
what are some examples of acids?
-H2CO3 (Carbonic acid): dissociates to form H+ and HCO3- (bicarbonate ions)
-HCL (hydrochloric acid): dissociates to form H+ and Cl- (chloride ions)
-Phosphoric and sulfuric acids
what is considered the most important acid/base reaction in the body?
H2CO3 - H+ + HCO3-
-the dissociation of carbonic acid into H+ and bicarbonate ions or vice versa
what is a base?
molecule or ion that accepts H+ ion
-HCO3-, ammonia, and proteins are the body's bases
B + H+ - BH+
what are some examples of bases?
-HCO3- (bicarbonate ion): accepts/combines with H+ to form H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
-HPO4-: accepts/combines with H+ to form H2PO4-
-net negatively charged proteins (amino acids) also accept H+ (ex: Hgb)
what are the most important acid and base in the body?
carbonic acid and bicarbonate
what is the most important protein base?
describe strong acids and bases
acid: releases H+ rapidly and in large amounts
base: rapidly reacts with and quickly removes H+
describe weak acids and bases
acid: slow to dissociate and release H+
base: binds to H+ much slower and weaker bond
which type of acids and bases does acid base regulation involve?
weak acids and bases
what is the pH of solution related to ?
the ratio of the undissociated to the dissociated acid
-acidosis: ratio of HCO3- to CO2 decreases
-alkalosis: ratio of HCO3- to CO2 increases
how are pH and H+ concentration related?
what determines the pH of the blood?
ratio of HCO3- to H2CO3 (or PCO2)
*PCO2 determines the amount of H2CO3 formed
*at a normal pH of 7.4 ratio of bicarb to carbonic acid is 20:1
what is seen with respiratory acidosis primarily?
what is seen with compensated respiratory acidosis?
increased PaCO2 and increased HCO3-
what is seen with respiratory alkalosis primarily?
what is seen with compensated respiratory alkalosis?
decreased PaCO2 and decreased HCO3-
what is seen with metabolic acidosis primarily?
what is seen with compensated metabolic acidosis?
decreased HCO3- and decreased PaCO2
what is seen with metabolic alkalosis primarily?
what is seen with compensated metabolic alkalosis?
increased HCO3- and increased PaCO2
what is normal arterial and venous blood pH?
arterial blood: 7.4
venous blood: 7.35
what is considered acidosis?
arterial pH less than 7.35
what is considered alkalosis:
arterial pH > 7.45
what pH range is compatible with life?