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Flashcards in acids and bases and ABG interpretation Deck (77)
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1

how can mechanical ventilation alter the acid/base balance?

its effect on PCO2

2

how can blood loss effect acid/base balance?

potential to impact the pH buffering ability because of lost hemoglobin

3

what is homeostasis of acid base balance based on?

a balance between....
-intake and production of H+
-removal and elimination of H+

4

why is H+ concentration essential?

-it is essential for proper functioning of enzymatic reactions
-cell functions are altered when H+ changes
-requires more precision regulation compared to other ions since it is lower than other ions in the body
ex: Na+ over 3.5 million times greater than H+

5

what is an acid?

a molecule that releases H+ ion
-proton donators

HA - H+ + A-

6

what are some examples of acids?

-H2CO3 (Carbonic acid): dissociates to form H+ and HCO3- (bicarbonate ions)
-HCL (hydrochloric acid): dissociates to form H+ and Cl- (chloride ions)
-Phosphoric and sulfuric acids

7

what is considered the most important acid/base reaction in the body?

H2CO3 - H+ + HCO3-
-the dissociation of carbonic acid into H+ and bicarbonate ions or vice versa

8

what is a base?

molecule or ion that accepts H+ ion
-proton acceptor
-HCO3-, ammonia, and proteins are the body's bases

B + H+ - BH+

9

what are some examples of bases?

-HCO3- (bicarbonate ion): accepts/combines with H+ to form H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
-HPO4-: accepts/combines with H+ to form H2PO4-
-net negatively charged proteins (amino acids) also accept H+ (ex: Hgb)

10

what are the most important acid and base in the body?

carbonic acid and bicarbonate

11

what is the most important protein base?

hemoglobin

12

describe strong acids and bases

acid: releases H+ rapidly and in large amounts
base: rapidly reacts with and quickly removes H+

13

describe weak acids and bases

acid: slow to dissociate and release H+
base: binds to H+ much slower and weaker bond

14

which type of acids and bases does acid base regulation involve?

weak acids and bases

15

what is the pH of solution related to ?

the ratio of the undissociated to the dissociated acid
-acidosis: ratio of HCO3- to CO2 decreases
-alkalosis: ratio of HCO3- to CO2 increases

16

how are pH and H+ concentration related?

inversely related

17

what determines the pH of the blood?

ratio of HCO3- to H2CO3 (or PCO2)
*PCO2 determines the amount of H2CO3 formed
*at a normal pH of 7.4 ratio of bicarb to carbonic acid is 20:1

18

what is seen with respiratory acidosis primarily?

increased PaCO2

19

what is seen with compensated respiratory acidosis?

increased PaCO2 and increased HCO3-

20

what is seen with respiratory alkalosis primarily?

decreased PaCO2

21

what is seen with compensated respiratory alkalosis?

decreased PaCO2 and decreased HCO3-

22

what is seen with metabolic acidosis primarily?

decreased HCO3-

23

what is seen with compensated metabolic acidosis?

decreased HCO3- and decreased PaCO2

24

what is seen with metabolic alkalosis primarily?

increased HCO3-

25

what is seen with compensated metabolic alkalosis?

increased HCO3- and increased PaCO2

26

what is normal arterial and venous blood pH?

arterial blood: 7.4
venous blood: 7.35

27

what is considered acidosis?

arterial pH less than 7.35

28

what is considered alkalosis:

arterial pH > 7.45

29

what pH range is compatible with life?

approx. 6.8-7.8

30

how does CO2 effect amount of H2CO3?

CO2 released from tissues combine with H2O via carbonic anhydrase to form H2CO3