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FRNSC 427 > Alcohol > Flashcards

Flashcards in Alcohol Deck (23):
1

Types of Alcohol

Ethanol
Methanol
Isopropanol
Ethylene glycol

2

Routes of administration

Topical
Inhalation
Intravenous injection
Oral ingestion

3

Pharmacology and Toxicology

Absorption
Distribution
Elimination in the body

4

Factors affecting absorption

Alcohol concentration of the ingested beverage
Physiology
Presence of food in the stomach

5

Alcohol concentration of the ingested beverage

Beverages > 30% alc will irritate the gastric mucosa and increase mucous production

6

Physiology

Changes in blood supply to GI tract

Changes in motility will affect speed with which ethanol enters the small intestine

7

Presence of food in the stomach

Food in the stomach will prolong gastric emptying time, resulting in a lower, delayed peak blood alcohol concentration

8

Distribution

Alcohol = hydrophilic and will distribute into fluid and tissues according to water content

9

Total body weight (TBW) dependent on

Age
Sex
Body Weight

10

Alcohol metabolism

5-10% ethanol is excreted
Bio transformation occurs in liver
Commences as soon as ethanol is absorbed
Alcohol dehydrogenase is primary enzyme

11

Elimination

Zero order kinetics
Ranges 10-20 mg/100mL
Average rate of elimination is 15mg/100mL/hour
Unaffected by coffee, air, showering

12

Fructose can

Increase elimination rate of alcohol

13

Effects of alcohol on the body

Vasodilatation
Disinhibition
CNS Depressant

14

Vasodilatation

Creates feeling of warmth when alcoholic beverages are consumed

15

Disinhibition

Responsible for the "stimulant" effects of alcohol

16

CNS Depressant

Non selective depression of brain and spinal cord

Effects occur on a continuum -with increased BAC, increased effects occur

17

Alcohol intoxication is major risk factor of

Positional asphyxiation

18

Alcohol in the blood

Plasma and serum are the "watery" components of whole blood
*both have higher alcohol content than whole blood

19

Alcohol in urine

Alcohol will pass from the blood into the urine as the blood is filtered through the kidneys

20

Alcohol in breath

Alcohol is volatile- at physiological temperatures alcohol will diffuse from the blood into the alveolar air of the lung and into the breath

21

Effects of alcohol and driving

The following are impaired at low BAC:
Judgement
Ability to divide attention
Choice reaction time
Tracking
Vision

22

Field sobriety tests

Nystagmus -jerking of eyes as they move to the side
Walk and turn
One leg stand

23

Analysis for blood alcohol

GC testing