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Flashcards in General Drug Information Deck (37):
1

Minimum standards for drug identification

*Use of an analytical scheme based on validated methods
* competence of analyst

2

What are the three analytical categories

A, B, C

3

If category A test is performed then______

Then atleast one other technique from category A,B, or C shall be used

4

When category A technique is not used then_____

Then atleast 3 different validated methods shall be employed (2/3 should be From category B)

5

Improve quality of the forensic examination of seized drugs

SWGDRUG

scientific working group for the analysis of seized drugs

6

Drug Chemistry

Any substance:
*that causes dependency in humans
*intended for use in the diagnosis,cure,mitigation,treatment, or prevention of disease
*that alters the mind,sense,mood, or thought
*losted in US pharmacopeia, homeopathic pharmacopeia, national formulary

7

Natural Classification

Alkaloids
Caffeine
Cannabis

8

Semisynthetic Classification

Heroin
Hormones
Steroids

9

Synthetic Classification

Benzodiazepines

10

Physiologic Classification

Analgesic
Depressants
Dissociative Anesthetics
Hallucinogens
Narcotics
Stimulants

11

Analgesic

Pain relief (aspirin,ibuprofen, morphine)

12

Depressant

Suppresses nervous system response (barbiturates, Valium)

13

Dissociative Anesthetics

Removes you from reality (ketamine,PCP)

14

Hallucinogens

Out of body experience (LSD, Psulocybin)

15

Narcotics

Induce sleep (heroin, morphine,codeine)

16

Stimulants

(Amphetamine, cocaine,nicotine)

17

Common forms of drugs

Powders
Plant matter
Pills
Precursor
Paraphernalia

18

Toxicology

The study of how natural or man made poisons cause undesirable effects in living organisms

19

Toxic

Poisonous or deadly effects

20

Toxicant

Chemical that can injure or kill humans, animals, or plants; a poison

21

Pharmokinetics

Relationship b/w dosage regimen and profile of drug concentration in blood over time

22

Pharmacodynamics

Relationships b/w drug concentration time profile and therapeutic and toxic effects

23

Pharmokinetics and Pharmacodynamics:

Aspects of
*absorption
*distribution
*excretion
*metabolism
*compartmental modeling

24

Toxicokinetics

Subdivision of pharmacokinetics concerned with impact of toxins on normal body-drug interactions

25

Routes of absorption

Oral
Inhalation
Intravenous
Intramuscular
Rectal
Oral mucosa
Intrathecal
Dermal
Ocular
Intranasally

26

Solubility

Maximum concentration of a substance that may be completely dissolved in a given solvent at a given temp and pressure

27

Solubility

Polar (delta > 50)
Semi-polar (delta = 20-50)
Non polar (delta = 1-20)

28

Solubility and Distribution of Stomach and Intestines

Stomach = pH of 2
Intestine = pH of 8

29

Agonist

Drug that binds to receptors and thereby alters the proportion of receptors in the active conformation resulting in biological response

30

Chemical Antagonism

Chemical interaction b/w drug and either a chemical or another drug leading to a reduced or nil response

31

Physiologic Antagonism

Occurs when two drugs acting in different receptors and pathways exert opposing actions in same physiologic system

32

Pharmacokinetic Antagonism

Result of one drug suppressing the effect of a second drug by reducing its absorption, altering its distribution, or increasing its rate of elimination

33

Pharmacological Antagonism

Occurs when antagonist inhibits the effect of a full or partial agonist by acting on the same pathway but not necessarily on the same receptor

34

Volume of distribution

Indicates where a drug is to be found primarily in the blood or in another bodily site

35

Sites of elimination

Kidney
Liver

36

Major excretory organs

Liver
Kidney
Other organs also have lesser roles in drug elimination

37

Drug clearance

Volume of blood in a defined region of the body that is cleared of a drug in a unit of time