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Flashcards in Alcohol and Cannabis Deck (29)
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1

What is the ratio of individuals in the U.S. who abuse alcohol or are alcohol dependent?

1 in 12 people

2

What is the lifetime and yearly prevalence of alcohol abuse?

Lifetime 17.8% 12 month = 4.7%

3

What is the lifetime and yearly prevalence of alcohol dependence?

Lifetime 12.5% 12 month = 3.8 %

4

What are congeners?

By-products of fermentation and aging that give distilled their distinctive colors and tastes acetone aldehydes Acetaldehyde esters other alcohols

5

What order kinetics does alcohol exhibit?

zero order kinetics (i.e. clear a drink/hour)

6

What is the legal limit of intoxication?

0.080 g/DL (80)

7

At what level of intoxication do individuals experience nystagmus, blackouts, and severe behavioral disinhibition?

0.200 - 0.300 g/DL

8

At what level of intoxication is alcohol fatal? *for individuals who are not tolerant/in withdrawal

0.300 - 0.400 g/ DL

9

What are the symptoms of alcohol intoxication?

Slurred speech Incoordination Unsteady gait Nystagmus (jerky eye movements) Impairment in attention or memory Stupor or coma

10

Define binge drinking.

- Binge drinking is any drinking that leads to a BAL of 0.08% or more. - Usually 4 drinks (for a woman) or 5 drinks (for a man) within a 1-2 hour period.

11

What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal?

- Hypertension, tachycardia - Changes in level of consciousness, tremors, nausea, vomiting, hallucinations - Can involve seizures (monitor reflexes) - Can be fatal

12

Describe how alcohol withdrawal occurs.

Chronic exposure to alcohol causes changes: - Down regulate endogenous GABA (-) - Up regulate glutamate (+) - Cessation of alcohol --> net excitation (i.e. tachy, tremor, seizures) - Use benzodiazepines (cross tolerant) to re-establish control - Gradually reduce (taper) benzo dose

13

What are the major effects on the body from chronic alcoholism?

- Fatty liver --> Cirrhosis - Dilated cardiomyopathy - Brain damage --> diffuse cortical atrophy - Fetal alcohol syndrome

14

What system is implicated in cannabis addiction?

Mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

15

What molecule in cannabis causes the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens?

THC

16

Endocannabinoid system overlaps with which neurotransmitters?

GABA, Glutamate, AcH, and dopamine

17

What are the 2 cannabinoid receptor subtypes?

CB 1- located in the brain CB 2- located on immune tissues

18

Name the 5 Endocannabinoids:

Anandaminde (1992) 2-Arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) 2-Arachidonoyl glyceryl ether (noladin ether) N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) Virodhamine

19

What is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis?

THC

20

Describe the effects of CB1 receptors

21

What are the major effects of cannabis?

Eurphoria

Rapid heart rate

Conjunctival injection (blood shot eyes)

Hunger

22

What are signs of cannabis "overdose"?

tachycardia, anxiety/panic, paranoia

23

What are signs of cannabis withdrawal?

Characterized by anxiety

Irritability

Decreased mood and food intake

Physical discomfort 

24

What percentage of the population reports using cannabis within the past year?

10.6%

25

What percentage of the U.S. population smokes cannabis daily?

1.3%

26

What percentage of cannabis users become dependent?

8% of users become dependent

27

What does marijuana increase the risk for?

Psychotomimetic effects 

Marijuana use is associated with earlier age at first psychotic episode in male patients with schizophrenia 

 

 

28

How does synthetic cannabis (cannabinomimetics) compare to natural cannabis?

Cannabinomimetcs can have 4-5 x potency of classical cannabinoids

29

How do cannabinomimetics work?

CB1 receptor agonist:
–Potent inhibitor of post-synaptic excitatory currents
–Increased ERK ½ MAPK phosphorylation
–Induced rapid CB1 receptor internalization