Flashcards in Human growth/development Psychiatry Deck (37)
What is the scale that measures pediatric developmental growth?
The Denver scale (Raisin Mastery)
What are common principles of development?
- Stages – separation/individuation – integration
- Cycles of stability and change
- Multiple Lines evolving simultaneously
What does "trend" refer to in terms of development?
What are major modifying factors of development?
- Health/Illness, Social/Culture
- Mentors, ceremony
- Timing of these factors is also significant
What are various "lines" of development?
Motor, cognitive, moral, psychosexual, psychosocial, spiritual, ect
Different lines unfold along natural and predictable sequences and timelines referred to as Stages.
Each Stage has a set of “tasks” that are required to be accomplished before an individual can move to the next Stage in that particular Line of development
What stage of psycho-social development occurs from ages 0-2?
Trust vs. Mistrust
What stage of psycho-social development occurs from ages 2-3?
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
What stage of psycho-social development occurs from ages 4-5?
Initiative vs. Guilt
What stage of psycho-social development occurs from ages 6-11?
Industry vs. Inferiority
What stage of psycho-social development occurs in adolescence?
Identity vs. Confusion
What stage of psycho-social development occurs in young adulthood?
Intimacy vs. Isolation
What stage of psycho-social development occurs in middle adulthood?
Generativity vs. Stagnation
What stage of psycho-social development occurs in late adulthood?
Integrity vs. Despair
A specific, enduring emotional bond whose existence is of major importance in the process of socio-personality development.
How is attachment seen in infants?
Attachment in infants is primarily a process of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure in situations of perceived distress or alarm for the purpose of survival.
Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant, and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about 6 months to two years of age
What is the percentage of infants who display secure attachment and what does it represent?
- Child believes their needs will be met by parent
What is the percentage of infants who display avoid ant attachment and what does it represent?
- Subconsciously believes needs won't be met by parent
- Child is distant and not engaged
What is the percentage of infants who display ambivalent attachment and what does it represent?
- Child cannot rely on needs being met
- Child is sometimes sensitive, sometimes neglectful
What is the percentage of infants who display disorganized attachment and what does it represent?
- Severely confused with no strategy to have needs met
- Extreme erratic behavior
Describe the first stage of infant attachment (Birth to 8–12 weeks).
-Indiscriminate Responsiveness to Humans
- Infants orient to persons in their environment, visually tracking them, grasping and reaching for them, and smiling and babbling.
- The infant often ceases to cry upon seeing a face or hearing a voice.
- These behaviors sustain the attentions of others and thus their proximity to the infant, which is the infant's goal.
Describe the second stage of infant attachment (3 to 6 months).
- Focusing on Familiar People
- The infant's behaviors are more marked in relation to the mother or perhaps the father.
- Social responses begin to become more selective, however, with the social smile reserved for familiar people.
Describe the third stage of infant attachment (6 months to 3 years)
- Active Proximity Seeking
- Infants show greater discrimination in their interactions with people.
- They become deeply concerned for the attachment figure's presence and cry when that person starts to leave.
- Certain other people may become subsidiary attachment figures
- However, strangers are now treated with caution and will soon evoke alarm and withdrawal.
What types of fear may emerge in stage 3?
- Separation anxiety
- Stranger anxiety
Describe the fourth stage of infant attachment (3 years to the end of childhood)
- Partnership Behavior
- Prior to this phase, the child is unable to consider the attachment figure's intentions.
- By age 3, the child has developed a greater understanding of parental intent and plans and can envision the parent's behavior while separated.
- The child is now more willing and able to let go and can be more flexible.
What is the behavioral style of an easy infant?
- Positive in mood, regular in body functions adaptable, approaching new situations positively and reacting with low to moderate intensity.
What is the behavioral style of a difficult infant?
- Negative in mood, irregular, slow to adapt, withdrawing from new situations and reacting with high intensity.
What is the behavioral style of slow to warm up infants?
- Negative in mood, slow to adapt, withdrawing from new situations reacting with low to moderate intensity, low in activity.
What is the sensorimotor period of infant cognition (0-2 years)?
- Infant differentiates self from other objects
- Grasps concept of object permanence
- Achieves primitive understanding of causality, time space
- Engages in imaginative play, and show the beginnings of symbolic thought.