Alkaloids-Toxic Principles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Alkaloids-Toxic Principles Deck (13):
1

Colchicine

MoA-Antimitotic

CSs-Involves many organs-especially those that are rapidly replicating

Plants-Autumn Crocus, Meadow Saffron, Glory lily, Climbing Lily

2

Diterpene Alkaloids

MoA-competitive blockade of the nictotinic receptors of the muscular endplate-similar to curare

CSs-Sudden death, muscle weakness, stiffness, staggering, bloating, recumbancy, collapse

Plants-Lankspur, Delphinium, Monkshade, Aconite

3

Ergot

MoA-vasoconstriction

CSs-gangrene, uterine contraction and abortion :(

4

Indolizidine Alkaloids (swainsonine)

MoA-Inhibition of lysosomal enzymes (decrease glycoproteins), peripheral neuronal degen (via nitropropanol glycoside), abnormal hoof and hair (via Se)

CSs-Neuronal signs, depression, circling, abnormal behavior + infertility, birth defects, heart failure, wt loss, immune suppr

Plants-locoweed, wilkvetches

5

Lycorine

MoA-Emetic and purgative, bulb most toxic

CSs-anorexia, salivation, vomiting, hypotension, muscle tremors/tumors

Plants-Narcissus, k(c)affir lily, spider lily, barbados lily, fire lily, zephyr lily, rain lily, river lily

6

Muscarine

MoA-Stimulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, CNS stim

CSs-Tx-atropine (muscarinic antagonist) + symptomatic tx and decontaminate

7

Piperidine Alkaloids

MoA-nicotinic effects starting with ganglionic and neuromuscular stim followed by ganglionic and neuromuscular blockade

CSs-Mainly ataxia, incoordination, birth defects (skeletal malformations and cleft palate)

Plants-Posion hemlock, spotted hemlock, CA or NE fern, lupines, tobacco, tree tobacco, coyote tobacco

8

Pyridine Alkaloids (nicotine and lobeline)

MoA-act on nicotinic receptors at autonomic ganglia, NMJ, and some synapses in CNS, low doses cause depolarization, large doses cause blockade

CSs-early signs are excitation, salivation, lacrimation, vomiting, diarrhea, tachypnea, muscle twitching, weakness DEATH DUE TO RESP FAIL

Plants-tobacco plant, tree tobacco, lobelia

9

Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

MoA and CSs-hepatotoxic

Plants-Rattlebox or crotolaria, senecio, groundsel, ragwort

10

Solanine and Solanidine Alkaloids

MoA- Similar effects to atropine, crosses BBB, immature toxic, not mature (green vs. red tomato)

CSs- GI, CNS, Resp, cardiac

Plants-Black nightshade, american nightshade, eggplant, tomato, turkey berry, chalice vine, chinese lantern

11

Taxine Alkaloids

MoA- cardiotoxic, similar to cardiac glycosides

Plants-Japanese Yew

12

Tropane Alkaloids (atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine)

MoA-All parts of plant are toxic

CSs-GI, CNS (convulsive seizures), mydriasis, tachycardia ANTIDOTE: PHYSOSTIGMINE BITCHESSS

Plants: Jimsonweed, thornapple, angel's trumpet, devil's trumpet, henbane

13

Xanthine Alkaloids (caffeine, theophylline, theobromide)

MoA-Blocks adenosine (A) receptors, inhibiting PDE

CSs-salivation, vomiting, colic, diarrhea, CNS stim, convulsive seizures, muscle tremors, tachycardia, hypotension, urination

Plants- cocoa, coffee