Glycosides-Toxic Principles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Glycosides-Toxic Principles Deck (13):
1

Anthraquinone

MoA and CSs-purgative

Plants-Ramus Purshiana DC (cascara sagrada), Buckthorn, coffee weed, senna, aloe

2

Calcinogenic glycoside (Vitamin D analog)

MoA and CSs-Hypercalcemia, lameness

Plants-Day-blooming Jessamine, Turkey Berry

3

Carboxy-atractyloside (sulfated glycoside)

MoA and CSs-HEPATOXICITY, excessive salivation, renal damage, hypoglycemia

Plants-Cocklebur

4

Cardiac Glycoside

MoA and CSs-cardiotoxic by inhibiting Na/K ATPase TREATMENT-DIGOXIN

Plants, oleander (one of the most toxic plants, 1 leaf can kill animal), yellow oleander, lucky nut, be-still tree, squill, lily of the valley, milkweed, kallanchoe, periwinkle

5

Coumarin Glycoside

MoA-form dicoumaral in spoiled plants, Inhibit Vitamin K epoxide reductase resulting in Vitamin K dependent coag factor deficiency

CSs-Hemorrhage ANTIDOTE-VITAMIN K1 OR WHOLE BLOOD

Plants-Sweet Clover

6

Cyanogenic glycoside

MoA and CSs-
Acute-Inhibition of cytochrome oxidase and inhibition of cellular resp, vasoconstriction, inhibition of glycolysis, inhibition of TCA cycle, irritation of MM

Chronic-Neuronal degen and anti-thyroid effect

Plants-Wild cherries, johnsongrass, Sudangrass, sorghum, elderberry

7

Cycasin

MoA-Glycoside that causes GI irritation and liver damage, teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, BMAA-->neurotxic AA, unknown toxin-->axonal degen in CNS

CSs-Gi and liver dz syndrome or ataxia and CNS syndrome

Plants-Sago Palm, Japanese Cycad, Cardboard Palm, Coontie

8

Glucosinolate (thiocynate glycoside)

MoA and CSs- Antithyroid

Plants-Rape seed, kale, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, turnip, cauliflower, soybean, flax

9

Nitropropanol glycoside

MoA-Inhibits enzymes of Krebs cycle and cellular oxidative phosphorylation

CSs-
Cattle and sheep-resp and neurologic signs (cracker heels or roaring dz)

Horses and rodents-neurologic signs

Plants-milkvetch, violets, lotus, indigo

10

Phytoestrogens

MoA-bind to estrogen receptors causing infertility in females and males

CSs-infertility in females, decrease libido and feminization in males

Plants-White clover, subterranean clover, alfalfa

11

Protoanemonin

MoA-volatile oil released by hydrolysis of the glycoside

CSs-severe irritation of the GI mucosa and dermatitis

Plants-buttercup family, anemone, raninculus, clematis, hellborus

12

Ptaquiloside

MoA-Death of precursor cells in BM, neoplasm in UT, Tumors in the URT and retinal degen

CSs-aplastic anemia, enzootic hematuria

Plants-bracken fern, brake fern

13

Steroidal Saponins

MoA-liver damage and inability to eliminate phylloerythrin a metabolite of chlorophyll which acts as a photodynamic substance, hepatogenic photosensitization

CSs-signs of photosensitization and liver damage

Plants-agave, beargrass, grass family