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Flashcards in Alkanes Deck (28):
1

structural formula

representation of molecule showing how many atoms are bonded to each other

2

full structural formula

shows every bond and atom

3

condensed structural formula

often omits bonds where they are assumed and groups atoms together
minimum information required to describe molecule non-ambiguously

4

stereochemical formula

show relative positions of atoms and groups around carbon in 3D

5

How do you show bonds sticking forwards?

solid, enlarging wedge

6

How do you show bonds sticking behind?

hashed line

7

How do you show bonds in plane of paper?

solid lines

8

1 carbon

meth

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2 carbons

eth

10

3 carbons

prop

11

4 carbons

but

12

5 carbons

pent

13

6 carbons

hex

14

1 carbon in chain

methyl

15

2 carbons in chain

ethyl

16

3 carbons in chain

propyl

17

4 carbons in chain

butyl

18

5 carbons in chain

pentyl

19

6 carbons in chain

hexyl

20

what do you add to chain suffix?

prefix that shows how many chains there are in the molecule - di, tri, tetra

21

How do you show where the carbon chains are attached?

number of carbon atom next to it so that numbers add up to smallest of all possibilities

22

structural isomer

molecules that have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of the atoms

23

As the size of the molecule increases, the number of isomers ---

increases

24

trend in melting and boiling points for group 17 and 18

melting/boiling points increase down group because as size of molecules increases so does van der Waals forces

25

what is the general formula for halogenoalkanes?

CnH2n+1X (where X is halogen)

26

What do halogenoalkanes contain?

atom of fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine bonded to carbon skeleton of molecule

27

Do halogenoalkanes have a polar bond?

yes so more reactive

28

How do you write halogenoalkanes?

but chloro, bromo, etc. before methane, etc. if no branches with carbon atom number
put e.g. 2-chloropropane or 1-bromo-2-methylpropane