Alkanes/Alkenes/Alcohols Flashcards

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1
Q

What is the other term used for crude oil ?

A

Petroleum

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2
Q

What are the two types of cracking, and the conditions necessary for them to occur.

A

Thermal: 400-900(oC), 7000 kPA.
Catalytic: 450(oC), slight pressure, zeolite catalyst.

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3
Q

Balance the following incomplete combustion equation in which a poisoneous gas is produced:
C8H18 + O2 ->CO + H2O

A

C8H18 + 17O2 ->16CO + 18H2O

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4
Q

What are the 3 transition metals present in a catalytic converter, and what are they spread on to increase SA.

A

platinum,palladium and Rhodium.

Honeycomb surface.

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5
Q

How is sulfur dioxide removed from flue gases, name the process.

A

Reacting the flue gases with calcium carbonate or calcium oxide. Flue gas desulfurisation.

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6
Q

What is the type of reaction that occurs when an alkane reacts with chlorine ?

A

Photo chemical reaction/ free radical substitution.

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7
Q

What are the two types of isomerism in alkenes, define each one.

A

Positional isomerism= double bond in different position.

Geometrical/stereo isomerism= Same structural formula, different arrangement of atoms in space.

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8
Q

What is the difference between E and Z isomerism ?

A
Z= functional groups at same locatoin on opposite side of double bond
E= Functional groups at different location on other side of double bond.
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9
Q

Why does bromine water turn colourless in the present of a double bond, and name the product.

A

Electrophilic addition.

Dibromoalkane

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10
Q

In a reaction, a primary carbocation and a secondary are produced. Which is more likely to form the major product and why ?

A

Secondary, more alkyl groups, feeds more electrons, carbocation more stable = positive inductive effect.

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11
Q

Why are addition polymers so unreactive ?

A

Non polar, saturated.

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12
Q

What are the two processes commonly used to make alcohol ?

A

Fermentation and Hydration

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13
Q

Why is fermentation not used on a mass scale for ethanol ?

A

produces a solution, not pure (yeast), requires distillation, land for food,batch, slow, labour.

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14
Q

What is the general formula or a alcohol ?

A

CnH2n+1OH

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15
Q

What is the name of the process+conditions required to convert ethanol, produced from fermentation, into an alkene.

A

Dehydration (elimination), 170(oC), phosphoric acid catalyst.

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16
Q

Define carbon neutral.

A

No net output of carbon dioxide

17
Q

What is the equation for fermentation ?

A

C6H12-> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2