Atomic Structure MA, SI Flashcards

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1
Q

State the meaning of the term isotopes

A

An element which contains the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons.

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2
Q

Give the relative mass and charge of an electron

A

relative mass: 1/1840

relative charge: -1

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3
Q

Define the term ‘first ionisation energy’

A

Energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of atoms in a gaseous state (kJ mol -1)

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4
Q

Name the 4 stages of mass spectrometery

A

1) Ionisation
2) Acceleration
3) Deflection
4) Detection

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5
Q

Write an equation to demonstrate the first ionisation energy of Sodium (Na)

A

Na (g) –> Na+ (g) + e-

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6
Q

State the definition of ‘relative atomic mass.’

A

The average mass of an atom of an element compared to 1/12 the mass of an atom of Carbon-12.

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7
Q

State the definition of ‘relative molecular mass.’

A

The average mass of a molecule compared to 1/12 the mass of an atom of Carbon-12.

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8
Q

What are the three factors affecting Ionisation Energy?

A

Nuclear charge, distance from the nucleus and shielding.

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9
Q

“The first ionisation energies of elements down a group of the periodic table decrease.”

True or false?

A

True.

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10
Q

As you move across a period, what is the trend of ionisation energies?

A

It increases, this is because the number of protons have also increased so there is a stronger nuclear attraction.

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11
Q

Describe the ‘acceleration’ aspect of a mass spectrometer.

A

Positive ions are accelerated by an electric field. Those with a lower mass/charge ratio experience a greater acceleration.

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12
Q

What are electron shells made up of?

A

Sub-shells and orbitals.

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13
Q

How do electrons fill orbitals?

A

Singly and then they double up.

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14
Q

Why do some ions travel at higher speeds during mass spectrometry?

A

Because they have a lower mass and high charge, a lower mass/charge ratio.

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15
Q

State the relative mass and charge of a neutron

A

Relative mass: 1

Relative charge: 0

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