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Flashcards in All Terms Deck (75):
1

Applied Behavioral Analysis

treatment of behavior in Autism to improve clients' life by increasing prosocial behaviors and decreasing maladaptive behaviors

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Registered Behavior Technician

-practices under BCBA
-direct implementation
-5% of hours must be supervised by BCBA

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BACB

Behavior Analyst Certification Board

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Hierarchy

1. BCBA
2. BCaBA
3. RBT

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RBT Task List

1. Measurement
2. Assessment
3. Skill Acquisition
4. Behavior Reduction
5. Documenting and Reporting
6. Professional Conduct and Scope of Practice

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Characteristics of ABA

1. Applied - socially significant improvements
2. Behavioral - observable behavior targeted for change
3. Analytic - observable and repeatable methods, functional relationships
4. Technological - clear procedures that can be replicated
5. Conceptually Systematic - evidence based
6. Effective - positive change
7. Generality - last over time and applied to multiple social situations

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Reinforcement

the addition or removal of a stimulus following a behavior that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated

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Punishment

the addition or removal of a stimulus following a behavior that decreases the probability of that behavior being repeated

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Motivating Operation

environmental variable that alters the reinforcing or punishing aspect of a stimulus/object/event, or alters the frequency of all behavior reinforced or punished by that stimulus/object/behavior

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Stimulus Control

a situation where the frequency/duration/severity of behavior is altered by the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus

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Operant Conditioning

the basic principle of learning in which behavior is controlled by consequences (+/- reinforcement, +/- punishment)

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Schedules of Reinforcement

rules specifying environmental arrangements and response conditions for reinforcement
1. continuous
2. intermittent

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Continuous Reinforcement

reinforcement after every correct response

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Intermittent Reinforcement

not continuous

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Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement

1. Fixed Ratio
2. Fixed Interval
3. Variable Ratio
4. Variable Interval

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Fixed Ratio

reinforcement after a constant number of correct responses

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Fixed Interval

reinforcement given after a specific period of time

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Variable Ratio

reinforcement varies but averages out at a specific number

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Variable Interval

time periods vary but average at a specific time interval

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Measurement

the process of applying quantitative labels to observed properties of events using a standard set of rules

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Baseline Measurements

the initial data on targets in which we test future successes of an intervention against

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Measurement/Data Collection

-5 trial data sheets
-1 initial probe data sheets
-behavior tracking forms (frequency and duration)
-ABC behavior charts

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Properties of the Measurable Dimensions of Behavior

1. Repeatability/Countable - count, rate, acceleration/deceleration
2. Temporal Locus - when behavior occurs, latency
3. Temporal Extent - duration of behavior

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Rate

combination of count and the observable time, making it stronger and more comprehensive form of measurement

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Inter-Response Time (IRT)

measure of elapsed time between two successive responses

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Continuous Measurement

measures all responses over a given period of time

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Discontinuous Measurement

measures a specified time limit
1. Event Recording
2. Time Sampling

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Event Recording

number of times a target behavior occurs and time period; for behaviors that are frequent enough to be recorded within a time period, but not too frequent that it is difficult to record accurately

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Time Sampling

recording behavior during intervals or specific moments; observation in intervals; presence and absence of behavior is recorded
1. Whole Interval
2. Partial Interval
3. Momentary

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Whole Interval Recording

continuous behavior with longer durations

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Partial Interval Recording

used at the end of an interval

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Momentary Time Sampling

captures whether behavior is occurring at the end of the interval

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Permanent Product Recording

uses the effects of the environment to measure behavior

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Characteristics of Behavior

1. Observable
2. Individual
3. Continuous
4. Determined by functional relations with other events
5. Variability is extrinsic to the organism

When defining behavior, it should be done using and observational definition

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Preference Assessment

stimulus that a person prefers, high vs. low, conditions
1. free operant observation
2. trial based methods

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Free Operant Observation

contrived vs. naturalistic

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Trial Based Methods

single, paired, and multiple stimuli

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Four Methods of Assessment

1. Interviews
2. Checklists
3. Direct Observation (ABC)
4. Tests

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Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)

the foundation to creating a behavior plan:
1. hypothesize the relationship between behavior and environmental events
2. determine function of target behavior
3. identify reinforcers
4. provide framework for treatment

Steps: gather, interpret, test, develop intervention

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Indirect Assessment

interviewing about behavior and conducting surveys

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Descriptive Assessment

ABC continuous recording and ABC narrative

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Effectiveness of Reinforcement

-reinforcement is most effective when used immediately after behavior
-reinforcement always makes a behavior INCREASE

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Positive Reinforcement

a preferred stimulus is added and the behavior increases

ex. verbal praise, tangibles, access to preferred activities

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Negative Reinforcement

an aversive stimulus is removed and the behavior increases

ex. requesting removal of something, using social skills against bullying

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Behavior Plan

-a strategy to reduce maladaptive behaviors and increase prosocial behaviors
-it provides a framework and gives practitioners a common set of knowledge

1. description of the individual
2. goal of intervention
3. target behaviors
4. maintaining factors

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Skill Acquisition Plan

programs used to increase specific skills and learning targets for a client

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Task Analysis

breaking a complex skill into smaller and teachable units
ex. tying a shoe, writing, brushing teeth

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Discrete Trial Training

a method of teaching in simplified and structured steps; the skill is broken down and built up using discrete trials

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Prompting

antecedent stimuli used to either begin or correct a target behavior in order to help behaviors reach their targeted form

1. full physical
2. partial physical
3. modeling
4. gesturing
5. verbal
6. independent

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Fading

progressing from the highest form of prompting to a lesser form of prompting; eventually, only the original stimulus preceding an independent response would result in reinforcement

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Prompt Dependence

the situation in which a long history of prompting followed by reinforcement causes the learner to become dependent on assistance

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Generalization

the learner's performance of a target behavior in a setting or stimulus in which direct training has not been provided

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Maintenance

the extent to which a learner continues to perform the target behavior after the intervention has been terminated

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Functions of Behavior

1. Sensory/Automatic Reinforcement
2. Social Attention
3. Tangibles/Access
4. Escape/Avoidance

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Differential Reinforcement

selective reinforcement of one behavior from among others; used when a behavior already occurs and good form, but tends to get lost among other behavior

-DRO, DRA, DRI, DRL/DRH

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DRO

differential of other behavior; reinforcement is delivered whenever the problem behavior does NOT occur

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DRA

differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors; reinforcement is provided for a desired alternative behavior in order to decrease the target behavior

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DRI

differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors; reinforcement is provided to a behavior that cannot occur simultaneously with the behavior targeted for decrease

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DRL/DRH

differential reinforcement of lower/higher rates; used when behaviors are needed to gradually increase (DRH) or decrease (DRL)

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Extinction

condition where reinforcement is stopped completely, resulting in the behavior's frequency decreasing

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Errorless Teaching Procedure

1. Prompt
2. Transfer
3. Distract
4. Check

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Multiple Exemplar Training

using many different stimuli to teach a skill to promote generalization

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Phase Change Line

demonstrates a change in conditions on a graph

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3 Step Discrimination Training Procedure

1. teach in isolation
2. add distracters
3. mix in mastered items

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Conditioned Reinforcer

anything that is paired with a primary reinforcer

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Unconditioned Reinforcer

things such as food and shelter that are inherently reinforcing

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Forward Chaining

teaching behavioral skills beginning with the first step

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Backward Chaining

teaching a behavioral skill beginning with the last step

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Extinction Burst

a temporary increase in behavior that occurs at the beginning of an extinction procedure

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Abolishing Operation

a motivating operation that decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus object

makes you want something less

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Establishing Operation

a motivating operation that establishes the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a reinforcer

makes you want something more

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Antecedent

Environmental event that occurs before the behavior

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Behavior

Actions and skills, both good and bad

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Consequence

Environmental event that occurs after the behavior

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Operational Definition

1. Objective
2. Clear
3. Complete