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Flashcards in All Test Science Deck (180)
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1
Q

What does red blood cells contain

A

Red blood cells contain haemoglobin which contains lots of iron

2
Q

What shapes do the red blood cells have and why

A

They have a flat concave shape which allows it to enter oxygen fast which they need to have a better gas exchange they need a bigger surface area

3
Q

Why is having a flexible shape good

A

They can enter every part of our body

4
Q

What does blood collect and why

A

Water oxygen and nutrients

To provide them to the cells

5
Q

Why does Rae blood collect carbon dioxide and waste

A

To get rid of it

6
Q

What are capillaries

A

They are the final distanition of the oxygen

7
Q

How does capillaries look like

A

They have small holes between them and only cell walls that are thick

8
Q

Vocabulary of our respiratory system

A

Lungs ribcage ( bones ribs and muscles - diaphragm and intericoastal

9
Q

Inhale

A

Air gets in because it increases the size of my ribcage I create an under pressure

10
Q

When inhale what happens to the diaphragm

A

Flattens and is contracted

11
Q

Exhale

A

Put more pressure diaphragm rises

12
Q

Aerobic respiration

A

Oxygen reacts with glucose to produce carbon dioxide and water and energy a lot which we need for living

13
Q

Calcium

A

Strong teeth and bones

14
Q

Nose - …

A
Nose 
throat 
trachea 
bronchi 
bronchioles 
alveoli
15
Q

Diffusion

A

When there is any particles that are going from a high concentrated place to a low concentrated

16
Q

What does the Alveoli and capillary do

A

Alveoli and then the capillary are taking the oxygen in and the carbon dioxide out

17
Q

When you breathe in:

A

Your diaphragm goes down

Your intercostals muscles contract causing your ribs to expand your lungs get bigger

18
Q

When you breathe out

A

Your diaphragm goes up your intercostal muscles relax and your ribs move inwards your lungs get smaller

19
Q

Skeleton

A
Skull 
Mondible- in the mouth
Neck 
Scapula - near the shoulders 
Ribs
Humerus / upper arm 
Vertebrae bone connecting ribs 
Pelvis
Radius - middle of arm
Ulna - 1 of the bones in the arm
Femur - upper leg
Tibia - down leg
Patella - knee
20
Q

What bones does the skull protect t

A

The brain

21
Q

Name the bones found i. Your neck

A

7

22
Q

Describe the role of your ribs

A

Protecting our lungs

23
Q

Common name for tibia

A

Shin

24
Q

Name the bones that form the hip

A

Pelvic bone

25
Q

Name the bones that form the knee

A

Patella

26
Q

Name the bones that form the elbow

A

Radius

27
Q

What is muscles function

A

Muscles move the bones and pulls on a bone when it contacts ( gets shorter and fatter)

28
Q

What do you say when. A muscle is not contracted

A

Relaxed

29
Q

Tendons function

A

Attach the muscles to the bones

30
Q

Ligaments function

A

Hold the bones uma joint

31
Q

What is a ball and socket joint

A

Joint where a ball shaped piece of bone fits into a socket made by other bones

32
Q

What is the ball and socket joint movement

A

Everywhere

33
Q

What is the hinge joint movement

A

Up and down

34
Q

Hinge joint

A

Joint where two bons form a hinge

35
Q

Muscles names

A

Muscle on the right is a biceps
In the middle it’s the upper arm bone
On the left muscle it’s the triceps
And under both it’s the lower arm bones

36
Q

What is underneath the triceps

A

Underneath the triceps it’s the ligament

37
Q

What is underneath the biceps

A

Underneath the biceps it’s the tendon

38
Q

Antagonistic pair

A

To muscles that pull a bone in opposite directions

39
Q

The biceps and the triceps are

A

Antagonist pair

40
Q

To bend the elbow
Biceps …..
Triceps …

A

Biceps contracts

Triceps relaxe

41
Q

To straighten the elbow the

A

The triceps contrast

Qnd biceps relax

42
Q

Fractures

A

Broken bones

43
Q

Dislocations

A

When’s bone comes out of a place in anoint which means that muscle cannot pull the bones in the correct directions

44
Q

Pulled muscles

A

When a muscle or a tendon has been stretched too much

45
Q

Sprains

A

When a ligament has been stretched too much

46
Q

Your heart blood and blood vessels are all part of your

A

Circulatory system

47
Q

The process which plant cells to release energy is called

A

Photosynthesis

48
Q

A type of joint which allow movement in just two opposite directions

A

Fixed joint

49
Q

When a muscles get shorter and fatter it

A

Contracts

50
Q

Another name for the trachea is

A

Windpipe

51
Q

Write out the word equation for aerobic respiration

A

Glucose reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water which produces lots of energy which r need

52
Q

Function of white blood cells

A

White blood cells are part of the body’s immune system they help the body fight infections and other diseases

53
Q

What does the skeletal system do

A

1 allows movement
2 produces blood cells
3 protects and supports organs

54
Q

Diet

A

Diet is what you eat and drink

55
Q

Why do you need for your health

A

Energy growth and repair and for your health

56
Q

What is a nutrient

A

A nutrient is any substance needed for energy or used as a raw material to make other substances

57
Q

your diet should contain the following nutrients

A
Proteins 
Carbohydrates 
Fats
Vitamins and minerals 
Water 
Fibre
58
Q

Why do you need protein

A

For growth and repair

59
Q

Why do you need carbohydrates

A

For energy

60
Q

Why do you need fats

A

Used to store energy

61
Q

Why do you need vitimans and minerals

A

For health grown and repair

62
Q

Why do you need water

A

For dissolving and carrying substances around the body for temperature control through sweating

63
Q

Why do you need fiber

A

Is not classed as a nutrient because it is not digested or absorbed by the body but you need it to keep your intestines healthy

64
Q

Another word for fats

A

Lipid

65
Q

A lack of fibre

A

Constipation your intestine become blocked

66
Q

Examples of fibre

A

Whole meal bread . Brown or whole grain rice , cereals , lentils , nuts and fruits

67
Q

Examples of protein

A
Meat 
fish 
Eggs 
Dairy products 
Beans
68
Q

Examples of carbohydrates

A
Bread 
Beans
Milk
Popcorn
Pasta
69
Q

Examples of fats

A
Butter 
Oil
Nuts
Meat 
Fish
70
Q

Examples of minerals

A
Cereals 
Bread 
Meat
Fish 
Dairy 
Fruit specials dried
71
Q

Why does our body need energy

A

Our body needs energy for growing moving and keeping warm

72
Q

What is the unit energy is measured in

A

Joules (j)

73
Q

Conversion kg g m um

A

Kg -> times 1000 g _> times 1000 mg

G Kg divide by 1000 g. Divide by 1000 -mg

74
Q

Hazard

A

A hazard is the harm that something may cause

75
Q

Risk

A

The chance of a hazard causing harm is a risk

76
Q

Iodine solution

A

Stains skin and clothing

Stings if it gets in your eyes

77
Q

Biuret solution

A

Corrosive - attacks skin

Corrosive can damage eyes

78
Q

Sugar

A

Soluble carbohydrate which exist as small particles glucose is an example

79
Q

starch is the main carbohydrate

A

Rice pasta potatoes and bread

80
Q

What about sugar

A

Sugar is a carbohydrates found in sweet food which can damage your teeth

81
Q

What happens if we don’t use all the carbohydrates you eat

A

Your body turns them run in to fat and stores Them overeating carbohydrates makes people get larger

82
Q

What is a balanced diet

A

A balanced diet is when you eat food from many sources to get the right amounts of the different nutrients

83
Q

Who needs lots of protein in their diet

A

Athletes body builders and young people

84
Q

Why does our body use protein

A

Are our body use protein to make substances to build new cells , repair your body and to let you grow

85
Q

Muscles are mainly

A

Protein

86
Q

You need a …….. quantities of vitamins and minerals in your body

A

Small

87
Q

Vítima in A

A

Carrots cheese eggs oily fish

88
Q

Why is vitamin A good

A

Keeps eyes and skin healthy

89
Q

Vitamins c

A

Lemons limes orange pineapple

90
Q

Why is vitamin C good

A

Keeps skin and gums healthy

91
Q

Vitamin D

A

Oily fish red meats eggs

92
Q

Why is vitamin D good

A

Keeps bones and teeth strong

93
Q

Calcium

A

Milk cheese

94
Q

Why is calcium good

A

Used in bones and teeth

95
Q

Iron examples food

A

Beans meat dark green vegetables

96
Q

Why is iron A good

A

Used in red blood cells

97
Q

Independent variables

A

Variables that are changed

Amount of water

98
Q

Dependent variables

A

Variables affected by the change

99
Q

Health problems caused by obisity

A

High bloood pressure and type 2 diabetes

100
Q

Eating too much fat

A

Causes some blood vessels to get blocked

101
Q

Why is exercise good

A

Exercise strengthens your muscles and bones that help you move it also strengthens your heart muscles making the heart better at pumping your blood

102
Q

Drugs effect

A

Because fumegue affect how your body works they Amy also change how it develops

103
Q

Smoking tobacco

A

Can damage your ciliated epithelial cells in the tubes leading the lungs which help our lungs clean in your respiratory system

104
Q

Why is the cilia damage

A

The heat and substances of the smoke damage the cilia and paralyses them. They no longer wave and so cannot sweep up the mucus

105
Q

Why is nicotine bad

A

Affect our brain and increases heart rate

106
Q

Nicotine damages

A

Blood vessels and can make them more likely to be blocked

107
Q

Tar is bad because

A

It can cause cancer which makes tissues make new cells in an uncontrollable way the new cells may form a lump called a tumour

108
Q

Line graph

A

Graph of two variables both measured in numbers

109
Q

Line of best fit

A

Straight or curved line drawn through the middles of the points to show the pattern of the data points

110
Q

Electrons have

A

Negative charge

111
Q

Atoms are

A

Neutral

112
Q

Neutrons

A

Particles with no charge in the nucleus of an atom

113
Q

Nucleus

A

The central part of an atom contains protons and neutrons

114
Q

Positively charged particles

A

Protons

115
Q

Opposite charges

A

Attract

116
Q

How is the atom hoop together

A

Because of the positive charged protons and the negative charged electrons attract to each other

117
Q

Chromatogram

A

The pattern of spots produced during chromatography

118
Q

Soluble

A

Substance dissolves to form a solution

119
Q

Solvent

A

A liquid that dissolves a soluble substance

120
Q

If dues are soluble

A

They will dissolve in the somvent

121
Q

Attraction to the solvent is high

A

Low

122
Q

Attraction to the solvent low

A

High

123
Q

Solution

A

Is a mixture of a solute and a solvent

124
Q

Example of a solute

A

Salt it dissolves in water

125
Q

Example of a solvent

A

Water

126
Q

What do you call solutions which do not dissolve in the solvent

A

Insoluble

127
Q

The more solvent you add the more

A

Concentrated the solution is

128
Q

Concentration

A

A measurement for f how many times particles of a certain type there are in a volume of a liquid or gas

129
Q

Dilute solution

A

Has a small number of solute particles dissolves in a large volume of solvent

130
Q

A comcentrated solution

A

Has a lagg rg E number of solute particles dissolved in a small volume of solvent

131
Q

Saturation point

A

When the solute can not dissolve anymore

132
Q

Why does the solute dissolve

A

Solute sdiasolve because the solvent particles bump into the solute breaking it up into individual particles

133
Q

Temperature increases the solvent

A

Particles have more energy so move around more this means they hit the solute mor soften and with more force

134
Q

A student made a solution with a weak conecentraion
How can they make it
More concentrated

A

Btw ding more solute

135
Q

Reactant

A

Substances that changes in a chemical reaction to form products

136
Q

Product

A

Substances made during a chemical reaction

137
Q

Clues to see if a chemical reaction has been made

A

Bubbles - this shows a gas has been made
A change in color - a new product has been made ina different color to the reactants
Change in temperature- increas or decreae
Rusting

138
Q

Inert

A

A chemical that is unreactive

139
Q

If a compound ends in - ate it means

A

It contains oxygen

140
Q

No atoms are ever

A

Lost

141
Q

Pure substance

A

Only contains one type of particles

142
Q

Mixture

A

Contains different types of subastenaces

143
Q

Pure metal

A

High purity

144
Q

Alloy

A

Lower purity

145
Q

Neautralisation

A

Chemical reaction between an add and an alkali which produces a neutral solution

146
Q

Endothermic

A

A reaction that the system absorbs energy from its surroundings in the form of heat

147
Q

Endothermic

A

(Takes energy from the outside) gets colder

148
Q

Exothermic

A

A reaction that releases energy from the system in the form of heat

149
Q

Exothermic

A

Releases energy onto the environment ( gets warmer)

150
Q

Which is a substance and which are a reactant or product

Magnesium + copper oxide -> magnesium oxide + copper

A

Magnesium oxide. - product
Magnesium- reactant
Copper oxide - reactant
Copper - product

151
Q

Magnesium + Oxygen ->

A

Magnesium oxide

152
Q

Sodium + chlorine

A

Sodium chlorine

153
Q

Copper + sulphur

A

Copper sulphide

154
Q

Glucose + oxygen

A

Carbon dioxide + water + (energy)

155
Q

Metal + water

A

Metal hydroxide and hydrogen

156
Q

Metal + sulfuric scid

A

Metal sulfate = salt + hydrogen

157
Q

Magnesium l + hydrochloride acid

A

Magnesium chloride and hydrogen

158
Q

Metal + oxygen produce

A

Metal oxide

159
Q

Apparatus to measure distance

A

Measuring cylinder
Tape measure
39 cm ruler

160
Q

Units of distance

A
Mestre rule
Kilometer
Decimeter 
Millimeter 
Centimeter
Light year
161
Q

Apparatus to measure time

A

Sundial
Stopwatch
Stop clock

162
Q

How do you investigate movement

A

Stopwatch
Timer
Distance

163
Q

I average

A

Mean

164
Q

Firing the average time

A
V = s/t
V = speed
S = distance 
T = time
165
Q

Resultant force

A

Shows the single total force acting on an object where all the forces acting on its red added up

166
Q

Balanced forces

A

When the resultant force is 0

167
Q

Unbalanced forces

A

Where the is a resultant force

168
Q

Upthrust

A

The upwards force form a liquid on an object in a liquid also applied to the upwards force on a object in a gas

169
Q

Normal force

A

When an object touched a surface there is a force on the object at 90 degrees to the surfave ( normal to the surface

170
Q

Effort

A

The force that you put in to move the load

171
Q

Pivot

A

the point about which the forces turn

172
Q

Distance of the pivot

A

This produces a larger turning effect using a loader

173
Q

Calculating Turing forces

A

Movement = force x distance from the pivot

174
Q

Calculate pressure

A

Force/ area

175
Q

Why is it a good that cameos have such large feet

A

This speeds their weight over a large area and so the camels exert less pressure on the surface of the ground this makes them less likely to sink
So it is easier for them to walk

176
Q

Why does vehicles that move over soft grounds have wider turned

A

So thy won’t sink on soft ground to drive across the three spread the weights of the vehicle over a large area this reduces the pressure on the surface caused by the vehicpe

177
Q

Gas pressure

A

The effect caused by the forces caused by the collisions from gas particles on the walls of the container

178
Q

Why is the particles in a gas so far apart and moving

A

Because the gas particles inside are hitting the sides the f the ballon

179
Q

Gas pressure increase when

A

The are more particles inside the container this increase the frequency of the collision with eh sides

180
Q

Increasing the temperature

A

Also increase ga apressure this is because the particles have more energy so they move about more quickly