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Flashcards in Geography Deck (65)
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1
Q

What causes waves?

A

Waves are caused by the wind dragging on the surface of the water.
The length of water the wind blows over is called a fetch

2
Q

What causes a wave to be large

A
  • stronger the wind
  • the longer it blows for
  • and the longer the fetch
    and the more energy they’ll have
3
Q

What is swash

A

The waves at the shore they beak giving turbulent water called swash

4
Q

What is Uprush?

A

The water rushing up the sand is called the uprush

5
Q

Backwash?

A

The water rolling back is called the backwash another wave will arrive shortly

6
Q

What happens when the backwash has more energy than the uprush

A

The waves eat at the land dragging pebbles and sand away ( this happens with high steep waves

7
Q

What happens if the uprush has more energy then he backwash

A

Material is carried onto the land and left there ( this happens with low flat waves) the material builds up to builds up to make a beach

8
Q

Why does the water level change

A

That’s mainly because of the moon as the moon travels around the earth it attracts the sea and pulls it upwards.
The Sun helps too but it is much further away o it’s pill is not so strong

9
Q

When does high tide occur

A

High tides occur about every twelve and a half hours with low tides in between

10
Q

What is the drop in sea level from high to low tide called

A

The tidal range

11
Q

When does the tidal range happen

A

It changes through the year because the pull on the sea changes as the moon or is earth and earth orbits the Sun

12
Q

What are tides caused by

A

Tides are caused by the moons gravity and the centripetal force of the moon orbits the sun

13
Q

Types wave 3

A

Wind driven
Tidal
Tsunami

14
Q

Destructive wave

A

A talk breaker it breaks down with great force
Taken beach away strong backwash
Weak swash

15
Q

Constructive

A

Creates puts sand on the beach

Strong swash weak backwash

16
Q

Smallest fetch =

A

Cause a small wave

17
Q

Big fetch =

A

Big waves

18
Q

What is prevailing wind

A

Wind that blows most often in the uk it is a south west wind

19
Q

The waves at work? (1)

A

1) they wear away or erode the coast. These cliffs are being eroded some of the rock has already been weathered Broken down by the action for the weather and plants that make it easier to erode

20
Q

The waves at work? (2)

A

They carry away or transport the eroded material

21
Q

The waves at work? (3)

A

They drop or deposit it in sheltered areas where they lose energy

22
Q

Erosion

A

They pound at the rock like a hammer over time this breaks the rock up

23
Q

What is a hydraulic solution

A

They force water into cracks in the rock that helps to break it
Up

24
Q

What is a solution

A

They dissolve soluble material from the rock

25
Q

What is abrasion

A

The fling sand and pebbles against the rock these wear it away like sandpaper

26
Q

What is attrition

A

The boys of rock that break off also get won down by knocking against each other

27
Q

Shingle

A

They get smaller and smaller they end up as shingle which is pebbles and sand

28
Q

What causes a fast erosion

A

The more energy the waves have and the softer the rock

29
Q

Longshore drift

A

Hundreds of thousands of tones of pebbles and sand get moved along our coastline every year in this way

30
Q

Groynes

A

Many seaside town build groynes of woods or concrete to stop their beaches being carried away by longshore drift

31
Q

Deposition

A

Waves continually carry material on and off the land if they carry more on than off a beach forms

32
Q

How does beach form

A

Beaches from in sheltered areas where the waves have less energy low flat waves carry material up the beach and leave it there some beaches are made of sand and some are shingle

33
Q

What are 3 jobs they shape the coastline

A

They wear away or erode the coast
They carry away or transport the eroded material
They drop or deposit in the sheltered areas where they lose energy

34
Q

Erosion

A

They pound at the rock like a hammer over time this breaks the rock up

35
Q

Hydraulic action

A

They force water into cracks in the rock. That helps to break it up

36
Q

Solution

A

They dissolve soluble material from the rock

37
Q

Abrasion

A

They fling sand and pebbles against the rock these wear it away like sandpaper

38
Q

Attrition

A

The bits of rock that break off also get worn down by knocking against each other

39
Q

Shingle

A

They get smaller and smaller they end up as shingle and sand

40
Q

Why do people build groynes

A

Many seaside towns build groynes of wood or concrete to stop their beaches being carried away by longshore drift

41
Q

What is the process that makes a rock smooth

A

Abrasion

42
Q

The stronger wind / wave

A

The bigger the erosion

43
Q

Forming of a headland

A

Hard rock eroded more slowly than soft rock the result is a cliffs of hard rock

44
Q

Wave - cut platform

A

The flat area at the base of these cliffs

45
Q

Bay

A

Here the softer rock has been eroded away leaving a bay

46
Q

Types of headlands

A

Cave arch and stack

47
Q

Where is the eroded material carried to

A

Eroded material is carried along the coast by longshore drift

48
Q

Beach

A

Some is deposited in sheltered area like this bay

49
Q

Salt marsh

A

Here’s another headland but the longshore drift continues in its usual direction

50
Q

Spit

A

So sand and shingle are deposited here in the sea and they build up a spit

51
Q

Reasons for the usage of the beach

A
Leisure 
Fishing 
Wind power 
Porta 
Farming 
Industry 
Settlements
Defende 
Dredging
52
Q

Three factors to create a storm

A

Air pressure
High tides
Strong wind

53
Q

Why could wave slash the promenade

A

Storm surge

54
Q

Low air pressure

A

A air pressure is low the air is rising and the sea is pushed upwards

55
Q

High tides

A

The high tides were at their highest during that time of the month

56
Q

What causes a higher surge

A

The waves had more time to form stronger

57
Q

What is coastal defense

A

Coastal defense yelp to protect the water flood or damage a place including erosion

58
Q

Material of the cliffs help erode faster

A

If the cliffs are made of soft sand making it easier to get eroded

59
Q

How does the rain effect destruction

A

The water first to the ground the material gets soaked meaning it will erode easier

60
Q

Direction of cliff

A

If the cliffs are faced to a allow it to have a longer fetch the more damage more waves

61
Q

What tyie of barrier would last the longest

A

Rock armiur

62
Q

Caravan parks advantages

A

Caravan parks can be moved easily if there are in danger

63
Q

Which types of defense is stop places from flooding

A

Sea walls

64
Q

Defendes that reduce waves energy

A

Rock armour and artificial reef

65
Q

How does the wave energy effect the erosion

A

The wave energy affects the erosion because it wont have as much power wont transport as much material s