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Otolaryngology > Allergy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Allergy Deck (12):
1

1. If one parent has inhalant allergies, a child has about a ___% chance of developing allergies.
2. • If both parents have allergies, this increases to about ___ %.

1. 30%
2. 60%

2

Developed countries have inc percentage of the population with allergy problems maybe bc infectious diseases more common in less developed countries help tilt an individual’s immune system more toward the ____ system

T-helper 1 (Th1). This minimizes the chance of developing the Th2-mediated atopic reaction, and the resulting allergic symptoms

3

Symptoms of allergies

• Nasal congestion
• Clear rhinorrhea
• itchy watery eyes
• sometimes ear or palatal itching, post-nasal drip, & throat irritation.
Fatigue

4

Allergies represent an abnormal immune response to what?

an environmental protein tolerated by the majority of people

5

___% of the US has genetic capacity to produce excess Ig__, the immunoglobulin that mediates allergic symtpoms

20%
IgE

6

Inhalant allergy symptoms requires an initial contact with that specific allergen --> development of the allergen-specific IgE.
1. What kind of hypersensitivity?
2. Allergen poopulates outside of what cell?

1. Type I
2. Mast cels

7

On recontact, the allergen binds to this allergen-specific IgE on the mast cell, triggering release from the mast cell of preformed what allergic mediators? causing immediate symptoms, and initiating the production of what further allergic mediators?

1. histamine, proteoglycans, proteases - immediate
2. leukotrienes and prostaglandins -responsible for the late-phase allergic response (3–12 hours later).

8

What are the 3 mainstays of treating inhalant allergies?

1. meds
2. avoid allergen
3. immunotherapy

9

Main pharmacotherpy for allergies?

1. antihistamines
2. nasal steroids
3. decongestants
4. topical nasal cromolyn
5. oral antileukotrienes

10

Which meds must be discontinued 3-5 days before allergy testing to avoid false negatives?

Antihistamines

Antileukotrienes, nasal steroid sprays and oral and topical decongestants may be continued without interfering with allergy skin testing

11

When is in-vitro testing preferred over skin testing for allergies?

Patient who is:
1. pregnant
2 .poor asthma control
3. has dermatographism
4. taking beta blocker
5. on a tricyclic antidepressant
6. taking monoamine oxidase inhibitor
7. hx of severe anaphylaxis

12

1. When do you do immunotherapy for allergens?
2. How does it work?
3. Potential SE?

1. if pharm and avoidance doesnt work.
2. Alters immune system's response to allergens by dec antigen-specific IgE and inc antigen-specific IgG (tilts immune system towards Th1 response!)
3. Severe anaphylaxis