Flashcards in ALS Medication Actions Deck (25)
• Binds to histamine receptor sites, Blocking H1 and H2 receptors
-H1 causes Bronchoconstriction, Airway swelling and vasodilation
-H2 causes secretion of gastric acid
• Does not prevent histamine release
• Relaxes bronchial smooth muscles by stimulating beta-2 adrenergic receptors.
• Produces bronchodilation, relieves bronchospasm, and reduces airway resistance.
• Increases blood glucose by converting glycogen stores in the liver to glucose
• Inhibits synthesis of glycogen from glucose
• Antagonizes the action of acetylcholine, preventing the interaction of acetylcholine with muscarinic receptors in bronchial smooth muscles causing bronchodilation
• Dries respiratory tract secretions
• At low and medium doses, Selectively dilates blood vessels supplying the brain, kidneys, heart and GI tract.
• At medium to high doses, Increases cardiac output by improving contractility and stroke volume, thereby increasing blood pressure.
• At high doses, causes vasoconstriction and increased heart rate.
Ondansetron (Zofran) Action
• Blocks serotonin receptors in vagus nerve terminals and in small intestine that trigger the vomiting reflex
• increases blood glucose by providing a quick release of free sugar into the circulation
Calcium Chloride Action
• Increases myocardial contractility
• Enhances Ventricular Automaticity
• Reverses cardio-electric changes produced by hyperkalemia
• Shifts potassium back into cells prevent intravascular hyperkalemia
• Competes with acetylcholine for receptor sites blocking the PNS response at SA and AV nodes.
• Incresses heart rate by increasing electrical conduction through the heart.
• Positive chronotropic properties with little or no inotropic effects.
• inhibits secretions by decreasing PNS effects on bronchial, Salivary, Sweat, and GI glands.
Naloxone (Narcan) Action
• reverses respiratory depression, sedation and hypotensive effects of opioid overdose by occupying opiate receptor sites
• Slows electrical conduction through AV node, and interrupts re-entry pathway, converting SVT to normal sinus rhythm
• Potent narcotic analgesic and sedative
Midazolam (Versed) Action
• CNS Depressant
• Produces anterograde Amnesia then sedation
• Stops and prevents seizures
Lidocaine jelly Action
• Prohibits the initiation and conduction of impulses thereby effecting local anesthetic action
• Decreases irritation when airway tube is inserted thereby decreasing intracranial pressure
• Inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins which transmit pain signals and induce fever.
• Reduces pain by blocking the signals produced by prostaglandins
• Blocks sodium, potassium and calcium channels in cardiac cells slowing conduction and prolongs repolarization.
• Has alpha and beta adrenergic blocking properties causing negative inotropic effects and reduces peripheral vascular resistance(afterload).
• Depresses depolarization and automaticity in the ventricles
• Increases the ventricular fibrillation threshold by increasing phase IV re-polarization
• Amide-type local anesthetic
• Low & slow dosing provides strong analgesic effects acting on the limbic system and cortex to block afferent transmission of impulses associated with pain perception
• High & rapid dosing provides fast acting dissociative anesthesia (blocks sensory perception) which can lead to distortion of sights, colors, sounds, self, and one's environment
Sodium Bicarbonate Action
• Reduces acidosis or causes alkalosis by direct release of bicarbonate ion into the circulation
• CNS Depressant acting on opiate receptors in the brain
• Potent Analgesic and sedative
• On the Bronchi: bronchodilation (Beta-2)
• On the peripheral vasculature: vasoconstriction (Alpha)
• On the heart:
-Increased heart rate (Beta-1) / chronotropic
-Increased contractility / Inotropic
-Increased AV conduction/ dromotropic
-Increased automaticity / dromotropic
Normal Saline Action
• Electrolyte solution, which is osmotically equivalent to blood
• Increases the circulating volume of the vascular system
(2/3 of infused volume leaves vascular space within 1 hour)
• inhibits normal tendency for platelets to accumulate inside injured or occluded coronary arteries, thereby improving blood flow through vessels to better perfuse the heart.
• Blocks formation of Thromboxin A2
Activated Charcoal Action
• Binds and absorbs ingested toxins present in the GI tract
• Inhibits intestinal absorption, preventing systemic toxicity