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Paramedic San Diego Protocols > ALS Medication Actions > Flashcards

Flashcards in ALS Medication Actions Deck (25)
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Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

• Binds to histamine receptor sites, Blocking H1 and H2 receptors

-H1 causes Bronchoconstriction, Airway swelling and vasodilation

-H2 causes secretion of gastric acid

• Does not prevent histamine release


Albuterol Action

• Relaxes bronchial smooth muscles by stimulating beta-2 adrenergic receptors.

• Produces bronchodilation, relieves bronchospasm, and reduces airway resistance.


Glucagon Action

• Increases blood glucose by converting glycogen stores in the liver to glucose
• Inhibits synthesis of glycogen from glucose


Atrovent Action

• Antagonizes the action of acetylcholine, preventing the interaction of acetylcholine with muscarinic receptors in bronchial smooth muscles causing bronchodilation

• Dries respiratory tract secretions


Dopamine Action

• At low and medium doses, Selectively dilates blood vessels supplying the brain, kidneys, heart and GI tract.

• At medium to high doses, Increases cardiac output by improving contractility and stroke volume, thereby increasing blood pressure.

• At high doses, causes vasoconstriction and increased heart rate.


Ondansetron (Zofran) Action

• Blocks serotonin receptors in vagus nerve terminals and in small intestine that trigger the vomiting reflex


Dextrose Action

• increases blood glucose by providing a quick release of free sugar into the circulation


Calcium Chloride Action

• Increases myocardial contractility

• Enhances Ventricular Automaticity

• Reverses cardio-electric changes produced by hyperkalemia

• Shifts potassium back into cells prevent intravascular hyperkalemia


Atropine Action

• Competes with acetylcholine for receptor sites blocking the PNS response at SA and AV nodes.

• Incresses heart rate by increasing electrical conduction through the heart.

• Positive chronotropic properties with little or no inotropic effects.

• inhibits secretions by decreasing PNS effects on bronchial, Salivary, Sweat, and GI glands.


Naloxone (Narcan) Action

• reverses respiratory depression, sedation and hypotensive effects of opioid overdose by occupying opiate receptor sites


Adenosine Action

• Slows electrical conduction through AV node, and interrupts re-entry pathway, converting SVT to normal sinus rhythm


Fentanyl Action

• Potent narcotic analgesic and sedative


Midazolam (Versed) Action

• CNS Depressant
• Produces anterograde Amnesia then sedation
• Stops and prevents seizures


Lidocaine jelly Action

• Prohibits the initiation and conduction of impulses thereby effecting local anesthetic action
• Decreases irritation when airway tube is inserted thereby decreasing intracranial pressure


Acetaminophen Action

• Inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins which transmit pain signals and induce fever.

• Reduces pain by blocking the signals produced by prostaglandins


Amiodarone Action

• Blocks sodium, potassium and calcium channels in cardiac cells slowing conduction and prolongs repolarization.

• Has alpha and beta adrenergic blocking properties causing negative inotropic effects and reduces peripheral vascular resistance(afterload).


Lidocaine Action

• Depresses depolarization and automaticity in the ventricles
• Increases the ventricular fibrillation threshold by increasing phase IV re-polarization
• Amide-type local anesthetic


Ketamine Action

• Low & slow dosing provides strong analgesic effects acting on the limbic system and cortex to block afferent transmission of impulses associated with pain perception

• High & rapid dosing provides fast acting dissociative anesthesia (blocks sensory perception) which can lead to distortion of sights, colors, sounds, self, and one's environment


Sodium Bicarbonate Action

• Reduces acidosis or causes alkalosis by direct release of bicarbonate ion into the circulation


Morphine Action

• CNS Depressant acting on opiate receptors in the brain
• Potent Analgesic and sedative


Epinephrine Action

• On the Bronchi: bronchodilation (Beta-2)
• On the peripheral vasculature: vasoconstriction (Alpha)
• On the heart:
-Increased heart rate (Beta-1) / chronotropic
-Increased contractility / Inotropic
-Increased AV conduction/ dromotropic
-Increased automaticity / dromotropic


Normal Saline Action

• Electrolyte solution, which is osmotically equivalent to blood
• Increases the circulating volume of the vascular system
(2/3 of infused volume leaves vascular space within 1 hour)


Aspirin Action

• inhibits normal tendency for platelets to accumulate inside injured or occluded coronary arteries, thereby improving blood flow through vessels to better perfuse the heart.

• Blocks formation of Thromboxin A2


Activated Charcoal Action

• Binds and absorbs ingested toxins present in the GI tract

• Inhibits intestinal absorption, preventing systemic toxicity


Nitroglycerine Action

• Produces vasodilation by relaxing systemic venous & arterial vessels, thereby:
• Decreasing preload & afterload
• Decreasing myocardial workload
• Decreasing myocardial Oxygen consumption
• Dilates coronary arteries