Alyssa Bellochi Developmental Psychology Vocab Flashcards Preview

Ap Psychology > Alyssa Bellochi Developmental Psychology Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Alyssa Bellochi Developmental Psychology Vocab Deck (80):
1

VOCAB 1

VOCAB 1

2

Developmental psychology

The study of progressive changes in bx and abilities from conception to death

3

Cross sectional study

Uses participants of different ages to compare how certain variables may change over the life span

4

Cohort

Group of subjects that have shared a particular experience during a particular life span

5

Longitudinal study

Examines one group of participants over time

6

Biographical study

Looks backwards at factors that relate to an outcome established by the study

7

Prenatal development

Development from conception to birth

8

Embryo

A multicellular being in the first two weeks of life

9

Fetus

A developing mammal from 2-8 weeks after conception

10

Neonate

A developing mammal from 8 weeks after conception to birth

11

Placenta

The organ that connects to the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination as gas exchange with the mother

12

Critical period

Period during development which displays heightened sensitivity to stimuli

13

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Children of alcoholic mothers can be born with small, malformed skills and mental retardation

14

Teratogens

Substances capable of altering fetal development in nonheritable ways that cause birth defects

15

Rooting reflex

When touched on the cheek, a baby will turn it’s head to the side of the touch and open it’s mouth

16

Sucking reflex

When an object is placed in a baby’s mouth, he will suck

17

Swallowing reflex

When object is placed in the baby’s mouth, he will swallow

18

Grasping reflex

When an object is placed in a baby’s palm or foot, he will squeeze his fingers or toes shut to hold the object

19

Stepping reflex

When placed upright with weight bearing on the feet, a baby will make stepping motions

20

Moro reflex

When startled, a baby will fling his limbs out and then quickly retract them

21

Babinski reflex

When a baby’s foot is stroked, he will spread his toes

22

Temperament

The physical core of personality, including emotion and perceptual sensitivity, energy levels, typical mood and so forth

23

Developmental norms

An individuals current state of physical, emotional, and intellectual development

24

Maturation

The physical growth and development of the body and nervous system

25

Sensorimotor stage

Stage of intellectual development during which sensory input and motor responses become coordinated

26

Object performance

Concept, gained in infancy, that objects continue to exist even when they are hidden from view

27

Mental representation

Mental images or symbols used to think about or remember an object, person or event

28

Preoperational stage

Period of intellectual development during which children begin to use language and think symbolically, yet remain intuitive and egocentric in their thought

29

Egocentric

Unable to see things from another’s point of view

30

Concrete operational stage

Period of intellectual development during which children become able to use the concepts of time, space, volume, and number, but in ways that remain simplified and concrete, rather than abstract

31

Principle of conservation

Mastery of the concept that the weight, mass, and volume of matter remains unchanged when the shape or appearance of objects change

32

Formal operational stage

Period of intellectual development characterized by thinking that includes abstract, theoretical, and hypothetical ideas

33

VOCAB 2

VOCAB 2

34

Babbling

When an infant experiments with sounds of language but produces no recognizable words

35

Holophrases

A single word used to express a complete, meaningful thought

36

Language acquisition device

An instinctive mental capacity which enables an infant to acquire and produce language

37

Imprinting

Form of learning in which a very young animal foxes it’s attention on the first object with which it has visual, auditory, or tactile experience and thereafter follows that object

38

Attachment

The emotional bond that typically forms between infant and caregiver, usually a parent, not only stimulates brain growth but affects personality development and lifelong ability to form stable relationships

39

Sex type behavior

Of children’s conceptions of cross gender behavior in their peers

40

Growth spurt

A rapid increase in growth which occurs several times in childhood, notably in infancy and adolescence years

41

Puberty

The biologically defined period during which a person matures sexually and becomes capable of reproduction

42

Menarche

A girls first menstrual cycle

43

Imaginary audience

An egocentric state where an individual imagines and believes that that multitudes of people are enthusiastically listening to him or her at all times

44

Identity formation

The development of the distinct personality of an individual

45

Identity crisis

An internal conflict of and search for identity

46

Cliques

Persons who interact with each other more regularly and intensely than others in the same setting

47

Midlife crisis

A period of dramatic self doubt that is felt by some individuals in the middle years or Middle Age of life

48

Menopause

Is time in a woman’s life where her menstrual cycle stops

49

Alzheimer’s disease

An age related disease characterized by memory loss, mental confusion and a nearly total losss is changes that no longer allow her to get pregnant

50

Oral stage

Infants seek pleasure in their mouths

51

Anal stage

The stage of toilet training

52

Phallic stage

Babies realize their gender

53

Patent stage

A period where children develop gender roles

54

Genital stage

Focus of sexual pleasure in the genitals

55

Oedipus/ Electra complex

When a boy is in love with his mother and a girl is in love with her father

56

Authoritarian parents

Set strict standards for their children’s behavior and apply punishments for violations of these rules

57

Permissive parents

Do not set clear guidelines for their children

58

Stages of dying

Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Depression
Acceptance

59

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCH

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCH

60

Nature vs nurture

The influence of biology and environment on human development

61

Sensitive period

A period of time when the brain is more receptive to absorbing certain skills, tasks and info; they can still learn these tasks after the sensitive period, but requires more conscious effort

62

Accommodation

Adjustment of schema to incorporate new info

63

Conservation

The realization that properties of objects remain the same even when appearance changes

64

Attachment styles

Attachment styles

65

Secure

Child is distressed when mom leaves, but easy to calm l; greets mom warmly upon return

66

Avoidance

Child generally ignores mom when she returns; attaches to stranger in room

67

Disorganized

Child is confused disoriented fearful with mom

68

Parenting styles

Parenting styles

69

Neglectful

Parents do not take responsibility for raising and controlling children; do not set limits and ignore child’s needs

70

Zone of proximal development

The difference of what a child knows and can do on their own and what they might have the potential to do given a supportive enough environment

71

Scaffolding

The support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the students with the intention of helping the student achieve his or her learning goals

72

IDENTITY STATUS JAMES MARCIA

IDENTITY STATUS

73

Diffusion

Diffusion

74

Diffusion

Adolescence has no clear idea of his identity and is not attempting to find it

75

foreclosure

Adolescent accepts the identity and values he or she was given in childhood

76

Moratorium

Adolescents delay in making a meaningful commitment, but are experimenting and searching

77

Achievement

Adolescent has developed well defined personal values and self concepts

78

HARRY HARLOW

HARRY HARLOW

79

Contact comfort

An infants need for physical touch and nurturant

80

Separation anxiety

6-9 month old, infant is distressed at being separated from caregiver