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Flashcards in AP PSYCH CARDS Deck (111):
1

PEOPLE

People

2

Charles Darwin

Theory of evolution, survival of the fittest-origin if the species

3

Wilhelm Wundt

introspection—psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience; father of modern psychology; structuralism was the approach and introspection was the methodology. 1st Psych lab

4

John Watson

founder of behaviorism; generalization; applied classical conditioning; most famous for Little Albert experiment, when he first trained Albert to be afraid of rats and then to generalize his fear to small, white animals

5

Alfred Adler

Neo-Freudian; believed that childhood social, not sexual, tensions are crucial for personality formation; believed that people are primarily searching for self-esteem and achieving the ideal self; inferiority complex

6

Carl Jung

Disciple of Freud who extended his theories; believed in a collective unconscious as well as a personal unconscious that is aware of ancient archetypes which we inherit from our ancestors and we see in myths (loving mother); coined the terms introversion and extroversion

7

Gordon Allport

Three levels of traits-
1. Cardinal: dominant trait that characterizes your life
2. Central: common to all people
3. Secondary: surfaces in some situations and not in others

8

Albert Ellis

Father of Rational-Emotive Therapy (REBT), which focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive bx and emotion (if I fail AP test my life will end)

9

Abraham Maslow

Humanist psychologist who said we have a series of needs which must be met; you can't achieve the top level, self-actualization, unless the previous levels have been achieved; from bottom to top the levels are psychological needs, safety, belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization; lower needs dominate and individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied (Hierarchy of needs)

10

Carl Rogers

Humanistic psychologist who believed in unconditional positive regard; people will naturally strive for self-actualization and high self esteem, unless society taints them; reflected back clients thoughts so that they developed a self-awareness or their feelings; client-centered therapy; active listening

11

B.F. Skinner

: operant conditioning
Techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's bx in order to observe the effects of subsequent bx; Skinner box; believed psych was not scientific enough; wanted it to be believed everyone is born tableau Rosa (blank state); NOT concerned with unconscious or cause, only bx Voluntary Bx

12

Ivan Pavlov

father of classical conditioning- an unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive bx called an unconditional response, but w/ repeated pairings w/ a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit the response Involuntary Reflexive Bx

13

Noam Chomsky

Believed there are an infinite # of sentences in a language and hat humans have an unborn native ability to develop language; words and concepts are learned but the brain is hardware for grammar and language

14

Jean Piaget

Four stage theory of cognitive development-sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational; two basic processes (assimilation and accommodation) work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth; Object Permanence, Conservation Tasks

15

Erik Erikson

People evolve through 8 states over the life span; each state is marked by psychological crisis that involves confronting "who am I"; Psycho-social development

16

Lawrence Kohlberg

His theory that there are 3 levels of moral reasoning (pre-conventional, conventional, post-conventional) and each level can be divided into 2 stages; Learning right from wrong; Heinz Dilemma

17

Carol Gilligan

Maintained the Kohlberg's work was developed only observing boys and overlooked potential differences btwn the habitual moral judgment of men and women

18

Hans Eysenck

personality is determined to a large extent by genes; used the terms extroversion and introversion; Trait Theory; x and y axis w/ quadrants

19

S. Schacter

Believed that to experience emotions one must be physically aroused and must then label the arousal heart races, then we decide we are feeling fear; physical, then cognitive, then emotion

20

Benjamin Whorf

his hypothesis is that language determines the way we think; Hopi Tribe

21

Robert Sternberg

triarchic theory of intelligence
1. Academic problem-solving intelligence
2. Practical intelligence
3. Creative intelligence

22

Howard Gardner

Theory of multiple intelligences (8 distinct categories

23

E.L. Thorndike

law of effect-the principle that bx followed by favorable consequences becomes more likely and vice versa; Cat Box; rewards work better than punishments

24

Albert Bandura

observational learning-allows you to profit immediately from the mistakes and successes of others; his experiment had adult models punching BoBo dolls and then observed children whom watched begin to exhibit many of the same bxs; social learning theory

25

Alfred Binet

Created test to see if children were ready for school; tests were turned into IQ tests

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Lewis Terman

revised Binet's I.Q. test and established norms for American children

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David Weschler

established an intelligence test especially for adults (WAIS); also WISC and WPPSI

28

Charles Spearman

Found that specific mental talents were highly correlated; concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled "g" for generability

29

H. Rorschach

Developed one of the first projective tests, the Inkblot Test; subject reads the ink blots and projects to the observer aspects of their personality

30

Philip Zimbardo

Conducted Stanford Prison experiment; studied to power of social roles to influence peoples bx; proved people's bx depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play; experiment had to be stopped bc it got out of control

31

David Rosenhan

Conducted a hospital environment to test the diagnosis that hospitals make on patients; wanted to see the impact of bx on being a patient; proved that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, your care would not be very good in a mental hospital setting. He had to pretend to have schizophrenia to enter a mental hospital

32

S. Asch

Study of conformity; experiment had a subject unaware of his situation to test if he would conform if all the members of a group have an obviously incorrect answer. Line test

33

Stanley Milgram

Conducted a study on obedience when he had a subject shock a patient to the extent that they would be seriously injuring the patient. Shock experiment

34

Harry Harlow

Studied theory of attachment in infant Rhesus monkeys; also experimented on the effects of social isolation in young monkeys and observed that they become severely emotionally disturbed and never recover fully cloth/wire mothers

35

Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalytical theory that focuses on the unconscious, id, ego, superego; believed innate drives for sex and aggression are the primary motives for our bx and personalities. Defense mechanisms

36

Karen Horney

Criticized Freud; said that personality is continually molded by current fears and impulses rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences; saw humans as craving love and social interaction to drive their needs. Moving against, away, or towards people

37

Martin Seligman

learned helplessness is the giving up rx that occurs from the experience that whatever you do cannot change your situation

38

H. Ebbinghas

First to conduct scientific studies on memory and forgetting; leading curves

39

Hubel and Wiesel

Did a study of the activities of neurons in the visual cortex

40

Walter B. Cannon

Believed that gastric activity in an empty stomach was the sole reason for hunger; did experiment by inserting balloon in subjects stomach

41

Ernst Weber

Pioneered the first study on JND (Just noticeable difference) which became Weber's Law; the JND btwn stimuli is a constant fraction of the intensity of standard stimulus

42

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross

Theory proposed the 5 stages of grief (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance)

43

Robert Zajonc

mere exposure effect; it is possible to have preferences w/o inferences and to feel w/o knowing why

44

RANDOM VOCAB TO KNOW

Random

45

belief perseverance

clinging to one's belief even when they have been discredited

46

belief bias

when one's beliefs force them to distort logic in order to support that belief

47

confirmation bias

tendency to search for information that support that belief

48

Deindividuation

Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint when in a group

49

false consensus effect

The tendency to believe that others agree with us more than they do

50

frustration-aggression principle

frustration creates anger which may create aggression

51

group polarization

Tendency for individual group members of two basically opposed views to become more extreme in their opposition to the other view

52

Groupthink

When desire for harmony in a group overrides logical search for alternative solutions

53

Hindsight basis

Tendency to believe, after a solution has been found, that you know it all along

54

Illusory correlation

The perception of a relationship where none exists bc we only notice instances that fit our existing schemes or stereotypes (confirmation bias)

55

in-group bias

tendency to favor one's own group and to view the out-group negatively

56

just-world phenomenon

tendency for people to believe the world is just and therefore people get what they deserve

57

mere exposure effect

the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

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misinformation effect

Incorporating false information into memories and believing they are accurate

59

Overconfidence

Tendency to believe our opinions are correct more often than they are

60

Representativeness heuristic

Making a decision or forming an opinion based on what we most associate w/ that topic; stereotyping

61

Availability heuristics

Making a decision or forming an opinion based on what we have most recently learned, seen or heard

62

self-serving bias

A readiness to believe good things about ourselves; tend to blame the situation when something goes wrong for us; but credit when it goes welll

63

Fundamental attribution error

Tend to blame the personality of others for what they are doing wrong, rather than the situation

64

Serial position effect

Tendency to remember the first and last item

65

Social faculitation

Improved performance on tasks in front of groups, it applies to tasks we know well or do well, not to newly learned or difficult tasks

66

Social loafing

Tendency for individuals engaged in a group task to work less hard than if they were being held individually accountable or working alone

67

Social trap

A situation when those engaged in a conflicting pursuit of self-interest become caught in mutually self-destructive bx

68

EXPERIMENTAL TERMS

Experimental groups

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Hypothesis

Your prediction of how the experimebt will come out, based upon a theory

70

Population

All cases in a study; group from which samples are drawn. If you were studying teen driving for instance, teens would be your population; the specific teens you studied would be your sample

71

Random sample

The group you are doing the actual experiment on. They should all have had the same chance of being selected from the population

72

Random assignment

The way in which you assign members of the random sample to the control or experimental group. Again, each member of the random sample should have an equal chance of being selected to each group. Try to keep all things equal. Wait until everyone is there and randomly select them

73

Subject

The person you are doing an experiment of; a member of the random sample who has been randomly assigned

74

Operational definition

A statement of the procedures used to define research variables. Spell out what you at comparing and how you are going to measure and compare the dependent variable

75

independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; how the groups are different

76

experimental group

The group being experimented on or acted upon by the independent variable

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control groups

Group compared to the experimental group to see if any change has occurred bc of the independent variable

78

Dependent variable

Bx or mental process that is being tested; the bx or mental process that changes bc of the introduction of the independent variable. The results of the experiment are compared to the bx or mental process before and after, or against the control group of the dependent variable

79

Results

The outcome in quantitative or measurable bxl terms comparing the dependent variable before and after

80

Confounding variables

Uncontrolled variables that affect the control group and experimental group affecting your results

81

Double blind

Technique, wherein neither the experimenter nor the subject know who is in the control group or experimental group so that they won't sway the reaults

82

Mean (average)

Sum of a list of numbers, divided by the total numbers in the list

83

Median "middle value"

Smallest number such that at least half the numbers in the list are no greater than it. If the list has an odd number of entries, the median is the middle entry in the list after sorting the list into increasing order. If the list has an even number of entries, the median is equal to the sum of the two middle numbers divided by two

84

Mode "most"'

Most common value; a list can have more than 1 mode. For histograms a mode is a relative max number (bump)

85

standard deviation

Tells how spread out numbers are from the average; calculated by taking the square root of arithmetic average of the squares of the deviations from the mean in a frequency distributions

86

social-learning theory

we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

87

signal detection theory

predicts how and when we detect the prescience of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation

88

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory

theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue- which when stimulated in a combination, can produce the perception of any color

89

opponent process theory

opposing retinal processes enable color vision (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black)

90

Place theory

Links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

91

Frequency theory

Rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch

92

gate-control theory

The spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain

93

drive reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates a drive that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

94

James-Lange Theory

Our experience of emotion is our awareness of our psychological responses and the subjective experience of emotion

95

Cannon-Bard Theory

An emotion-arousing stimulus triggers cognitive body responses simultaneously

96

two factor theory

Schachter's theory that to experience emotion one must be psychically aroused and cognitively label the arousal

97

Cribution Theroy

We tend to ice a casual explanation for someone's bx, often by creating either the situation or the person's disposition

98

Cognitive-dissonance theory

we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent

99

scapegoat theory

prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

100

Social exchange theory

Our bx is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

101

social-learning theory

we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

102

signal detection theory

predicts how and when we detect the prescience of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation

103

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory

theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue- which when stimulated in a combination, can produce the perception of any color

104

opponent process theory

opposing retinal processes enable color vision (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black)

105

Place theory

Links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

106

Frequency theory

Rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch

107

gate-control theory

The spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain

108

drive reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates a drive that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

109

James-Lange Theory

Our experience of emotion is our awareness of our psychological responses and the subjective experience of emotion

110

Cannon-Bard Theory

An emotion-arousing stimulus triggers cognitive body responses simultaneously

111

two factor theory

Schachter's theory that to experience emotion one must be psychically aroused and cognitively label the arousal