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3rd year/clinical > ambulatory medicine > Flashcards

Flashcards in ambulatory medicine Deck (48):
1

what is the most common cause of secondary hypertension

renal artery stenosis

2

what are the major complications of HTN

cardiac (coronary artery disease, CHF with LVH), stroke and renal failure

3

what is a common end result of untreated HTN as LVH occurs

CHF

4

what is the term for discontinuity in the retinal vein secondary to thickened arterial walls

arteriovenous nicking

5

what is the term for infarction of the nerve fiber layer in the retina

cotton wool spots

6

what antihypertensive medications are safe in pregnancy (general classes)

beta blockers and hydrazine

7

at what age should all people start getting screened for FLP

age 20

8

what is the issue in type 1 dyslipidemia

elevated chylomicrons

9

what is the issue with type 2a dyslipidemia

elevated LDL

10

what is the issue with type 2 b dyslipidemia

elevated LDL and VLDL

11

what is the issue in type 3 dyslipidemia

elevated IDL

12

what is the issue in type 4 endogenous hyperlipidemia

elevated VLDL

13

what is the issue with top 5 dyslipidemia

elevated VLDL and chylomicrons

14

what cholesterol levels does alcohol effect

increases TG and HDL levels but does not effect total cholesterol levels

15

how does thiazides effect cholesterol

increase LDL, total cholesterol and VLDL levels

16

how do beta blockers effect cholesterol

increase TGs (VLDL) and lower HDLs

17

what is the term for yellow plaques on eyelids

xanthelasma

18

what is the term for hard, yellowish masses four don tendons

xanthoma

19

what are the main clinical features of tension headache

pain is steady, viselike, and encircles the entire head (tight band0like pain around head); tightness in posterior neck muscles

20

what is the drug of choice for cluster headaches

sumatriptan (imitrex)

21

what is the drug of choice for prophylactic treatment of cluster headaches

verapamil

22

what is the most effective prophylactic treatment of migraine headaches

propranolol

23

what is the use of bronchoscopy in pt with a cough

if there is no other diagnosis based on other testing, use this to look for tumor, foreign body or tracheal web

24

common features of viral URI

rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache, fever and cough

25

common feature of bacterial URI

fever, cough, yellow sputum

26

what is the most common viral cause of the common cold

rhinovirus

27

what are the most common sinuses involved in sinusitis

maxillary sinus

28

what is the name brand name for loratadine

claritin

29

what is the name brand name for fexofenadine

allegra

30

what is the antibiotic treatment for strep throat

penicillin for 10 days (erythromycin if pt allergic)

31

what is the test of choice to evaluation for dyspepsia

endoscopy

32

what is the primary mechanism of GERD

inappropriate relaxation of the LES

33

what is the most common cause of acute diarrhea

viral infection (rotavirus and norwalk virus)

34

what medication should be given for moderate to severe bacterial diarrhea

5 days of cipro

35

what common causes of acute infectious diarrhea have fecal leukocytes

salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7

36

what is the preferred treatment for salmonella diarrhea

cipro

37

what is the preferred treatment for shigella diarrhea

bactrim

38

what is the preferred treatment for campylobacter diarrhea

erythromycin

39

what is the preferred treatment for giardiasis diarrhea

metronidazole

40

what are some medications that can be given for diarrhea type IBS

diphenoxylate, loperamide

41

what are some medications that can be given for constipation type of IBS

solace, psyllium, cisapride

42

what imaging would you oder for diagnosis of ulcer diseases or outlet obstruction

upper GI endoscopy

43

what diagnostic tests would you order for diagnosis of biliary disease

ultrasound

44

what is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen after severe vomiting

hypokalemia with metabolic alkalosis

45

what are the most common causes of low back pain

musculoligamentous strain, degenerative disc disease, facet arthritis

46

what tests should be ordered besides Xray/MRI to evaluated for Osteomyelitis

CBC with differential, ESR, CRP

47

what is the best tests to diagnose nerve compression in cervical spine

MRI

48

what is the earliest symptoms of cervical myelopathy

gait disturbance