During the first few years of World War I, which nations were the primary Allied Powers?
At the War's outbreak in 1914, the primary Allied Powers were France, Great Britain, and Russia, known as the Triple Entente. Italy joined the alliance in 1915.
The alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria was known by what name?
The Central Powers
The principle by which a country favors neither side in a conflict. At the outbreak of World War I, the U.S. declared it was officially neutral.
The vigorous expansion of the U.S. armed forces in anticipation of eventual involvement in World War I was known as _____.
A German submarine sank the British passenger ship ________ in 1915, killing over 100 Americans, and turning American opinion against Germany.
What was the Zimmermann Telegram?
The Zimmermann Telegram was an intercepted communication between Germany and Mexico, with the Germans asking for Mexican assistance in the event of an American declaration of war against Germany.
What was Woodrow Wilson's campaign slogan in 1916?
"He kept us out of the War."
Wilson's campaign reaffirmed his commitment to neutrality, although at his request, Congress had already expanded the Navy and increased the size of the Army.
Propaganda is the presentation of information artificially skewed to persuade the audience of a certain viewpoint.
British propaganda helped propel the United States towards war with the Central Powers by portraying the Germans in a negative light.
What was the final justification for the United States' declaration of war in 1917?
Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war when Germany reinstituted unrestricted submarine warfare; Germany vowed to sink every ship in the waters around Great Britain. This violated the principle of freedom of the seas.
The process of readying a nation for war is known as _____.
During the later part of 1916 and the beginning of 1917, the United States began preparing for war by increasing the Army and ordering new armaments.
How did the United States government prepare the economy for war?
The United States government established various War Agencies to manage the economy and prepare U.S. industry and agriculture for the increased demands of military production.
As a result of the Russian Revolution, which branch of the Communist Party seized power?
The Bolsheviks seized power in Russia in 1917. Originally under the control of Vladimir Lenin, the Bolsheviks were led by Joseph Stalin after Lenin's death in 1924.
What nation surrendered to the Germans in 1917, freeing the Germans to concentrate their efforts against France and Great Britain?
In 1917, after years of defeat, Russia underwent two revolutions. Communists eventually seized control and signed a treaty with Germany.
What was the purpose of the Selective Service Act, enacted during the First World War?
In the Selective Service Act, Congress used a lottery system to ensure that all segments of the population were democratically drafted into the Army.
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
The American Expeditionary Force was the name given to American Army units serving in France. The AEF was under the command of General Jack Pershing.
Describe the American Expeditionary Force's activities during World War I.
The United States Army increased dramatically in size following the Selective Service Act, which instituted the draft. Only a small portion of the Army made it to France before the War ended, but the American Expeditionary Force fought bravely at Belleau Wood and in the Saint-Mihiel salient.
Which act made it a crime to obstruct the operation of the Selective Service Act?
The Espionage Act, passed in 1917, made it a felony to impede the draft. The Espionage Act was upheld by the Supreme Court in Schenck v. United States. The Court held that right to free speech could be abridged in the event of clear and present danger to public safety.
Which act of Congress, passed during World War One made it illegal to make “disloyal” or “abusive” remarks about the government?
The Sedition Act
The Fourteen Points were Woodrow Wilson’s detailed list of war aims, which included such terms as freedom of the seas, self-determination for the various ethnic groups in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a reduction of armaments, and the establishment of the League of Nations.
What treaty formally ended the First World War?
The Treaty of Versailles
Dictated by the Big Four Powers, the Treaty issued crushing terms on Germany, designed to impair Germany's ability to wage war.
Who were the "Big Four" Powers during the Versailles negotiations?
The Big Four Powers were the United States, Great Britain, France, and Italy. Woodrow Wilson represented the United States during the Versailles negotiations.
What was the purpose of the League of Nations?
The League of Nations was designed to provide an international assembly where nations could work out their differences without resorting to war.
How did Wilson envision the post-World War I world?
Wilson advocated his Fourteen Points, which included such principles as self-determination for the various nationalities in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the establishment of the League of Nations, and limits on the size of individual nations' armies and navies. Wilson justified the War as "Making the World Safe for Democracy."
On behalf of the Allied Powers, who took the lead in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles?
The Big Four took the lead in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles:
- Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States
- David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of Great Britain
- Georges Clemenceau, Prime Minister of France
- Vittorio Orlando, Prime Minister of Italy
The Treaty of Versailles led to the establishment of which international governing body?
The League of Nations, which sought to resolve international disputes to prevent further wars.
What was the reaction of Republicans in Congress to the League of Nations?
Many Republicans (and some Democrats) viewed the League of Nations as dangerous because it impeded the United States' freedom of action and violated the Monroe Doctrine. Several members of Congress, known as Reservationists and led by Henry Cabot Lodge, were willing to endorse the Treaty, provided the United States reserved certain rights and privileges, including the continuation of the Monroe Doctrine. Other Congressmen, known as Irreconcilables, opposed the Treaty regardless of modifications.
The Treaty of Versailles failed to pass.
The Red Scare was a fear that Communists, Socialists, Anarchists, and labor agitators were plotting to take over the government and major industries.
The Red Scare resulted in the Palmer Raids in 1919, during which U.S. government forces arrested several leading Communists and Socialists.
What was the primary fear embodied in the Red Scare?
The primary fear embodied in the Red Scare was that Communists, Socialists, and Anarchists were infiltrating the government and unions, and were poised to take over the U.S. economy. To block this attempt, in 1919 the U.S. Department of Justice launched Palmer Raids which deported many communists and socialists.
What caused the race riots of the post-war era?
During mobilization for World War One, blacks headed North to replace white factory workers who were serving in the Army. Upon the soldiers' return, many workers felt that blacks had displaced them, and race riots erupted in places such as East St. Louis and Chicago.