Beginning in the 1890s and continuing until 1915, ______, composed by musicians such as Scott Joplin, proved increasingly popular, blending strict two-four time and the melody in a steady syncopation.
Ragtime music began in black neighborhoods in St. Louis and New Orleans before catching on with audiences nationwide. Ragtime blended European classical music with the syncopation utilized by black musicians. Ragtime influenced many of the earliest jazz musicians, such as Louis Armstrong.
Who was the most popular bandleader of the early 20th century?
John Philip Sousa
Sousa specialized in patriotic marches and led his brass band in parades and concerts. His most famous march, Stars and Stripes Forever, continues to be popular today.
Who were the Gold Bugs?
In the 1896 election, the Gold Bugs marked those Democrats who were loyal to President Cleveland and who supported the gold standard (as opposed to silver coinage). The issue of free silver split the Democratic Party, which nominated free silver advocate William Jennings Bryan.
Most Gold Bugs supported Bryan's opponent, Republican William McKinley, or joined the short-lived rump party, the National Democrats.
How did William Jennings Bryan secure the 1896 Democrat nomination for President?
Bryan endorsed free silver in his famous "Cross of Gold" speech. Bryan said:
"We will answer their demands for a gold standard by saying to them: ‘You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.’”
Who did the Populist Party support in the 1896 presidential election?
William Jennings Bryan
By adopting a free silver platform, Bryan and the Democrats had appropriated the Populists' main electoral issue, and in response the Populists also nominated Bryan. Their failure to nominate a different candidate led to their demise as a party.
How did William Jennings Bryan revolutionize presidential campaigns during the 1896 election?
Bryan actively campaigned for the Presidency, ending a long tradition of candidates staying quietly at home and letting surrogates make their case for them.
William McKinley, Bryan's Republican opponent, remained on his front porch, entertaining visitors and providing lemonade.
Although the 1896 Republican nominee William McKinley stayed quietly on his front porch and entertained visitors, his campaign manager, Mark Hanna, revolutionized political campaigning. How?
Hanna sought campaign funds from wealthy donors, and used those funds to purchase favorable space in newspapers and magazines.
McKinley's opponent, William Jennings Bryan, revolutionized politics in his own way by conducting the first direct campaign by a candidate for President.
What was the effect on the Democratic Party of William McKinley's resounding victory in the 1896 presidential election?
William McKinley crushed William Jennings Bryan in one of the most lopsided presidential elections in history. The result relegated the Democratic Party to a regional political party, drawing strong support only in the South. Six of the next seven Presidents would come from the Republican Party.
In 1897, early in President McKinley's first term, gold was discovered in _____, bringing the U.S. out of the depression which followed the Panic of 1893.
The Alaskan Gold Strike also increased the amount of gold in circulation, lessening the appeal of candidates who supported silver coinage.
What was the first newspaper to reach 1,000,000 in circulation?
The New York World, published by Joseph Pulitzer, reached the 1,000,000 mark in the 1890s. Unlike the more staid papers of the day, Pulitzer's World emphasized sensationalism with lurid tales of love gone wrong, murder, and corruption in high places.
Who led the New York Journal, a rival to Pulitzer's New York World?
William Randolph Hearst
Hearst and Pulitzer engaged in a newspaper war fighting for subscribers with ever-escalating sensationalism. Critics dubbed their conduct "yellow journalism."
The term "yellow journalism" stems from the Yellow Kid comic strip, which was published in both the Journal and the World.
In 1895, José Martí, with arms and ammunition smuggled in from the United States, began a revolution against the Spanish government in _____.
Both Hearst's Journal and Pulitzer's World covered Martí's revolution and atrocities committed by the Spanish government in suppressing it, such as the decision to concentrate suspected revolutionaries in camps. Both newspapers urged American intervention.
Jingoism is a belligerent nationalist foreign policy. The term was used in the 1890s to describe those who supported continued American expansion, by diplomatic means if possible, but by war if necessary.
The term is often associated with Teddy Roosevelt, who was quoted in 1895, "If by 'jingoism' they mean a policy in pursuance of which Americans will with resolution and common sense insist upon our rights being respected by foreign powers, then we are 'jingoes.'"
What was the De Lôme Letter?
De Lôme was the Spanish Ambassador to the United States. In February 1898 (a few weeks before the Maine sank in Havana), a letter written by De Lôme to his government, which insulted President McKinley, was leaked and published in The New York Journal.
The letter, which described McKinley as "weak and catering to the rabble," outraged Americans.
In 1898, the sinking of the _____ in Havana Harbor provided the excuse for an American declaration of war on Spain.
One of America's new battleships, the Maine exploded on the night of February 15, 1898. Although probably the result of an accident, the sinking provided a pretext for war.
A popular Spanish-American War recruiting slogan was "Remember the Maine, and to hell with Spain."
Before requesting Congress declare war in 1898, President McKinley issued an ultimatum to Spain, demanding that Spain cease hostilities against the Cuban revolutionaries. How did Spain respond?
Spain agreed, but under domestic pressure President McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war anyway. The Spanish-American War was officially declared on April 20, 1898.
What was the Teller Amendment?
Affixed to the American declaration of war against Spain in 1898, the Teller Amendment declared that after the war, Cuba would be granted self-government. For the Cubans at least, the Spanish-American War would be a war of liberation, not of conquest.
Who led the American naval attack on the Spanish forces at Manila Bay?
Commodore George Dewey
Manila was the capital of the Philippines, Spain's sole remaining Asian possession of importance. On May 1st, 1898, Dewey's fleet defeated Spanish naval forces in a one-sided battle, sinking 11 Spanish ships.
Dewey suffered a single fatality, Chief Engineer Francis B. Randall of the McCulloch, who suffered a heart attack.
Following the declaration of war against Spain, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt resigned and formed his own cavalry unit. What nickname was applied to Roosevelt's unit?
Officially called the 1st United States Volunteer Calvary Regiment, the unit was known as the Rough Riders. Roosevelt recruited cowboys, miners, hunters, gamblers, Indians, and football players from Harvard and Yale.
What was the most famous battle of the Spanish-American War?
On July 1, 1898, Teddy Roosevelt's Rough Riders launched a successful attack against Spanish forces on San Juan Hill. Roosevelt's efforts were aided in large part by the black soldiers of the 24th and 25th Infantry. Roosevelt received much of the credit, and became a celebrity.
On July 3, 1898, American naval forces crushed the Spanish Navy at _____ _____ _____, the largest naval battle of the Spanish-American War.
Santiago de Cuba
The battle decimated the Spanish naval forces, cutting off Cuba from Spanish reinforcements. On August 12, 1898, Spain sued for peace. The war had lasted only four months.
What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1898), ending the Spanish-American War?
Under the Treaty of Paris, the United States gained the Spanish possessions of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines, for which the United States paid $20 million.
Cuba, where most of the fighting had taken place, was placed under the jurisdiction of the United States military, and achieved independence in 1902, albeit with significant limitations on its foreign policy.
The United States suffered some 5,500 fatalities during the Spanish-American War. What was the leading cause of death?
Only about 500 American servicemen lost their lives due to enemy combat, while some 5,000 died due to disease; primarily malaria, yellow fever, and dysentery.
Dr. Walter Reed, a U.S. Army physician, investigated yellow fever. He determined that it was transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact. Reed's research formed the foundation of the new field of epidemiology.
Stationed in San Francisco in February, 1898, the USS Oregon sailed around South America in time to participate in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, some two months later. What was the effect of this lengthy journey?
The Oregon's two-month trip provided convincing evidence of the need for the Panama Canal; in the event of war with a major European power the United States would be able to ill afford the lengthy journey required to shift ships from the Pacific to the Atlantic.
In 1900, _____'s request for annexation was officially granted by the U.S. Congress.
American settlers overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, but their request for annexation had been rebuffed by President Cleveland and the Democrats. The Spanish-American War provided a pretext to reconsider annexation, and the island became a U.S. territory.
Imperialism is a policy of extending a country's power, territory, or influence by diplomacy, force, or a combination of both.
By contrast, an anti-imperialist opposes such an extension.
What political group opposed continued U.S. imperialism in the early 20th century?
the Anti-Imperialist League
Guided by William Jennings Bryan, the Anti-Imperialist League opposed the U.S. annexation of the Philippines in the aftermath of the Spanish-American War. The League contended that annexation was against the wishes of the Filipinos, and thus contrary to the American principle of the "consent of the governed."
The Treaty of Paris (1898), ending the Spanish-American War, provided for American annexation of the Philippines. How did Filipinos respond?
Filipinos were outraged, having expected independence. Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino nationalist, led a guerrilla movement against American forces. The Philippine Insurrection resulted in thousands of casualties.
The Philippines would finally be granted independence in 1946.
What were the Insular Cases (1901)?
The Insular Cases arose out of the question of whether the U.S. Constitution would apply in full in the territory acquired from Spain. Despite the urging of the Anti-Imperialists, the Court held that the Constitution did not follow the flag. Rather the territories only received those rights granted to them by the Congress.
What was the Platt Amendment (1902)?
After the Spanish-American War, the Platt Amendment conditioned the withdrawal of American forces and Cuban independence on Cuba's agreement to allow American supervision over her foreign policy.
In addition, the Cuban-American Treaty (1903) allowed the U.S to maintain a United States naval base at Guantánamo Bay.