What year did the Soviet Union take control over Eastern Europe?
What did the 'Iron Curtain' separate?
East and West Europe
Why did the Soviet Union blockade Berlin?
They attempted to push allied troops out of West Berlin
What did UK, USA and France do to help the blockade?
Allies airlifted in supplies for almost a year
What did USSR do in 1949?
Detonate the first atomic bomb
What happened in China in 1949?
Communism spread in China, which was almost a quarter of the world's population
When did the Korean war begin?
Which countries backed up which parts of Korea?
Soviets backed up North Korea and USA and China backed up South Korea
What is meant by war by proxy?
USA and Soviet Union were at war with each other, through the other states
What is McCarthyism?
The widespread accusation of Communist activity in America by Senator Joe McCarthy during the early 1950s
What did McCarthy say during 1950?
He had a list of 250 members of the Communist Party
"I have here in my hand a list..."
What did people react towards McCarthy's list?
Many people (members of the public and his fellow Republicans) believed him although he did not have any evidence
What was the HUAC?
The House of Un-American Activities Committee where 2375 men and women appeared because they were supposedly Communist
What occurred in the film industry in 1947?
Communism searches investigated on the film industry- those who refused to answer questions were blacklisted and jailed, known as the Hollywood Ten
What act was introduced in 1954?
The Communist Control Act banned the Communist Party
Why did people support McCarthyism?
McCarthyism exploited the fear that American people had of communists, due to:
- the international situation
- situation in the USA
Why was the Federal Employee Loyalty Program (FELP) introduced in 1947?
To investigate federal government workers - those who had no hand in shaping American policy
What did the FBI do?
Investigate communists in America
What did Alger Hiss get accused of doing?
In 1948, he was accused of handing over 200 secret documents and being a communist spy. He denied both charges and was convicted to 5 years of perjury
What did the Rosenbergs do?
In 1950, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were found to have sold nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union and were executed in 1953
How did McCarthyism decline?
In 1954, Edward R. Murrow had an episode of a show See it Now attacking the methods of McCarthy. It had footage of McCarthy's speeches to portray him as dishonest, reckless and abusive toward witnesses and prominent Americans
What was McCarthy's last straw?
He claimed that the army had been infiltrated by communists and that the president Eisenhower knew about it and did nothing. McCarthy's behaviour was condemned by the Senate in 1954 and was forced out of public life
What happened in the Yates vs United States case of 1957?
Convictions of 14 communists were reversed
What were Jim Crow laws?
The segregation of states, mostly the southern states
Which aspects of life were segregated?
Schools, restaurants, theatres, workplaces, public transport and toilets