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Flashcards in Amniotic Fluid Deck (21):
1

Amniotic fluid is produced by the ___ of fluid across the placenta prior to 19 weeks.

transudation

2

After 19 weeks, ____ ____ is produced by the fetal kidneys, tissues, skin, and fetal membranes.

amniotic fluid

3

Amniotic fluid is introduced to the GI tract by _____.

swallowing

4

Name the 4 functions of amniotic fluid.

-Protective cushion for fetus
-Equalization of pressure and temperature
-Reservoir for fetal metabolites
-Essential for the development of fetal lungs

5

Sonographically, amniotic fluid should be ___.

anechoic

6

Sonographically in the third trimester you might see ___ or ___ ___ floating in the amniotic fluid.

vernix, cellular debris

7

Prior to 19 weeks, the ___ ___ ___ of fluid is measured.

largest vertical pocket

8

Make sure there is no ___ ___ or ___ ___ in your measurement of any fluid pocket. Largest vertical pocket normal range is ____ cm of fluid.

fetal cord, fetal parts
2-10

9

After 19 weeks the amniotic fluid index (AFI) is measured in ___ quadrants, which are added together and should range from ___ cm of fluid.

four; 5-25

10

Amniotic fluid increases until the ___ week and then slowly decreases.

28th

11

Define oligohydramnios.

abnormally decreased amount of amniotic fluid

12

Name the DRIPPP causes of oligohydramnios.

D- Demise
R- Renal abnormalities
I-IUGR
P- Post dates >40 weeks
P- Premature rupture of membranes (PROM)
P- Preeclampsia/eclampsia

13

Define ahydramnios.

absence of any amniotic fluid

14

Define polyhydramnios.

abnormally increased amount of amniotic fluid which can be acute or chronic

15

What are the three degrees of polyhydramnios?

Mild- vertical pocket 8-12 cm
Moderate- vertical pocket 12-16 cm
Severe- vertical pocket >16cm

16

What is eclampsia? What is preeclampsia? Explain the difference.

Preeclampsia is a condition in which the mother develops hypertension during pregnancy. Eclampsia is diagnosed after the hypertensive mother experiences a seizure.

17

What is an amniocentesis?

a method of retrieving amniotic fluid to send to the lab for analysis- a needle is placed into the uterine cavity under US guidance

18

The rate of complications for an amniocentesis is ___ and complications can include ___, ____, and ___.

.5%
pregnancy loss, infection, complete loss of fluid

19

There are two tests performed with amniotic fluid in the lab. What are they called and what do they test for?

LS Ratio (lethecin to sphingomyelin ratio)-- a ratio of greater than 2 to 1 indicates respiratory distress syndrome will be unlikely. This means that the fetal lungs are mature enough for delivery.
PG (Phosphatidylglycerol)-- this appears within the amniotic fluid at the time of fetal lung maturity (around 35 weeks) so it is indicative of lung maturity.

20

There are many causes of maternal polyhydramnios. Name two.

gestational diabetes
Rh incompatibility

21

There are many causes of fetal polyhydramnios. Be familiar with these ---->

CNS anomalies, GI anomalies such as duodenal or intestinal atresia, facial clefts or masses, fetal hydrops, twin twin transfusion, sacrococcygeal teratoma, skeletal dysplasia