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Flashcards in Fetal face and neck Deck (40):
1

The upper liip and the Nares are best seen in the __________ ________ with respect to the fetus

Coronal plane

2

True or False
You must have this image, including the upper lip and the two Nares

True

3

Why is it important to image the upper lip and the Nares?

To exclude the possibility of facial clefting (this part of the normal second trimester US)

4

In what planes can the feral eyes be imaged?

Coronally or tranversely

5

In times past, the inner orbital distances were used to evaluate the _______

Pregnancy

6

The inner orbital distances are really only used when trying to evaluated for other fetal cranial abnormalities like ___________

Holoprosencephaly

7

The presence of a nasal bone is _________ noted

Usually

8

Hypoplastic or absent nasal bones maybe associated with______________

Trisomy 21

9

Soft tissue in the neck are evaluated in the _____________ or ______________

Transverse or sagittal plane

10

The AP dimensions or thickness of the nuchal fold is evaluated in fetuses less than ___________

24 weeks

11

The measurement of the fetal neck should be taken from ______________to the ______________

Outer echogenic skull to the outer skin line

12

Fetal neck measurement should be

less than 6mm

13

When the neck measurement is greater than six, there is an association with

Trisomy 21

14

When should the neck measurement no longer be taken?

If the fetus is greater than 24 weeks

15

Marked thickening of the nuchal fold is also associated with

Turner's syndrome, called a cystic hygroma

16

Decreased intraorbital distance

Hypotelorism

17

Hypotelorism is associated with

Syndromes and holoprosencephaly

18

Increased intraorbital distance

Hypertelorism

19

Hypertelorism is associated with

Anterior Cephalocele and many syndromes

20

The most common congenital facial abnormality

Facial clefting

21

_________% cleft lip only

25

22

________% cleft lip and palate

50

23

_______% cleft palate only

25

24

The ultrasound diagnosis relies on the presence of a _________ ______ to recognize the abnormality

Cleft lip

25

What will cleft lip look like on ultrasound?

An interruption in the upper lip
(this is why it is necessary to view the entire lip and Nares)

26

Don't mistake a cleft lip for a

Normal philtrum (dip in the skin above the lip)

27

It is extremely difficult to recognize an ___________ ____________ __________ on ultrasound

isolated cleft palate

28

Sagittal image of the midline of the face

Profile

29

What are the two things that the profile image is used for finding

1. Micrognathia
2. Frontal bossing

30

an abnormally small jaw, associated with syndromes especially Trisomy 18

Micrognathia

31

A prominent forehead due to an absent nasal bridge, associated with syndromes and skeletal dysplasia

Frontal bossing

32

Facial masses

1. Epignathus
2. Cervical teratoma
3. Cystic hygroma

33

Are facial masses common or uncommon

uncommon

34

A rare pharyngeal teratoma which protude from the fetal mouth
- looks like a large complex cystic and solid mass

Epignathus

35

Epignathus is associated with ______________ because of ineffective fetal swallowing

Polyhydramnios

36

May occur anywhere on or around the neck. It also appears as a complex solid or cystic mass near the fetal neck

Cervical teratoma

37

A benign developmental anomaly of the lympthatic system in which single or multiple cystic areas are present around the neck

Cystic hygroma

38

Cystic hygroma has a high association with

Chromosomal abnormalities especially Turner's syndrome and downs syndrome

39

Large hygromas are often associated with

fetal hydrops

40

What are the ultrasound findings with Cystic hygromas

-thin walled, multi septated mass at the posterior aspect of the neck
-may see nuchal ligament extending posteriorly associated with hydrops fetalis which shows fetal ascites, body wall edema, pleural effusions