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Flashcards in Anaerobic infections of soft tissue Deck (20)
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1

how are anaerobic infections initiated?

following deep tissue trauma- accidents, cancer, surgery, immunosuppression and IV drug abouse

2

which anaerobic infections have vaccines available?

tetanus

3

what are the morphologies of clostridia, bacteriodes, prevotella and actinomyces?

all are rods
clostridia and actinomyces are gram positive and bacteriodes and prevoella are gram negative

4

which anaerobic pathogens are environmental?

C. tetani and C. botulinum

5

which anaerobic pathogens are also normal flora?

c. difficile, bacteriodes, prevotella and actinomyces

6

which anaerobic pathogen can be either normal flora or environmental?

C. perfringens

7

what is the mechanism of pathogenesis of C tetani and C botulinum? how do they differ?

both produce neurotoxins with synaptobrevin II protease activity. They are different because of the nerves they effect

8

what part of the nervous system is affected by tetanus? what is the toxin involved? what is the result?

tetanospasmin affects the inhibitory portion of the central nervous system. results in spasms

9

what part of the nervous system does botulism affect? what is the result?

botulinum toxin is active in the stimulatory portion of the peripheral nervous system. It causes flaccid paralysis

10

what is the treatment for botulism and tetanus?

antitoxin to bind and inactivate the neurotoxin

11

how is botulism introduced into the body, primarily?

by eating improperly canned foods

12

what pathogen causes gas gangrene? what is the method of pathogenesis?

c perfringens
produces tissue degrading enzymes

13

why must gas gangrene be resolved quickly?

because lethal exotoxemia may ensue

14

how are C perfringens, bacteroides and prevotella identified?

by anaerobic culture and gas cromatography of their metabolic products

15

which are the tissue degrading anaerobes and how are they treated?

c perfringens, bacteroides and prevotella
treat with antibiotics and surgical removal

16

what disease does c perfringens produce, other than gangrene?

causes food poisoning by producing enterotoxin

17

what disease is caused by c difficile? when is it usually transmitted?

pseudomembranous colitis
occurs after antibiotic use and it is often nosocomial

18

how should C difficile be treated?

change the antibiotic and intervene surgically if necessary.

19

what symptoms are caused by actinomyces?

produdces nodules containing pus with sulfur granules near the mouth or in the colon

20

how should actinomyces be treated?

with penicillin. surgical care is usually necessary as well.