Bacterial Infections of Blood and Vasculature Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bacterial Infections of Blood and Vasculature Deck (27)
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1

what type of bacteria are borrelia?

spirochetes

2

what is the difference in appearance between treponema and borrelia?

borrelia are large enough to see with standard microscopy

3

what organism causes lime disease? what is its vector?

b burgdorferi
vectored by deer ticks

4

what is the downside of serology testing for b burgdorferi?

serology can confirm exposure but not disease and not promptly after infection?

5

how much time does lyme take to transmit from the vector?

24 hours

6

what are the three stages of lyme disease?

1) flu like with erythema migrans rash
2) musculoskeletal and/or neurologic symptoms
3) additional neurologic symptoms and arthralgias

7

what is post lyme syndrome? what is it caused by?

lingering fatigue, joint pain and mental status changes. caused by damage, not lingering bacteria

8

how is lyme disease treated?

with amoxicillin or doxycycline. give ceftriaxone if in child or pregnant woman. treat for 10-30 days only

9

what vectors carry relapsing fever bacteria?

louse or tick borne.
louse are more severe but tick borne are most likely seen in the US

10

what is relapsing fever?

high fevers with well periods in between.

11

what two pathogens cause relapsing fever?

borrelia recurrentis (louse) and hermsii (soft ticks)

12

what is the lifecycle of relapsing fever in the human body?

immediately enters the blood stream from the bite site. there is repeated rounds of bacteremia and clean up by neutralizing antibodies

13

why can't the immune system immediately terminate relapsing fever?

because there is antigenic variation by the spirochetes

14

how is relapsing fever diagnosed?

by peripheral blood smear during febrile periods

15

how is relapsing fevers treated?

with tetracyclines (doxycycline)

16

how are relapsing fever and lyme disease avoided?

use protective clothing and deet. perform daily tick checks in at risk areas during the tick seasons

17

what is the Jarisch Herxheimer reaction?

a reaction following the successful treatment of any spirochete infection. It is an endotoxin response resembling septicemia

18

how are Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma transmitted? what shape are they?

transmitted through arthropod vectors
they are small cocci to short rods

19

how are reckettsia, ehrlichia and anaplasma treated?

with tetracycline (doxycycline)

20

what is a nuance of the life cycle of the rickettsia, erlichia and anaplasma?

they are obligate intracellular parasites that can only be grown in vitro in tissue culture

21

how do the rickettsiae diseases present?

headache, fever and body aches. may also cause a rash or eschar

22

what is the proper removal of a tick?

should be done with tweezers while wearing gloves. done promptly because bacteria take time to transmit

23

what rickettsial disease has humans as the proper host? how does this differ from others?

epidemic typhus
other rickettsial diseases are accidental transmissions to humans by vectors

24

where do rickettsia divide?

throughout the cell

25

where do ehrlichia and anaplasma divide?

they form morulae in phagocytic vacuoles

26

how are rickettsial bacteria identified?

all are difficult to stain and require microimmunofluorescent assay to visualize

27

what treatment is used for rickettsial illnesses?

tetracyclines used for adults and children, but not for pregnant women. alternately treated with chloramphenicol (rickettsia) or fluoroquinolones (ehrlichia and anaplasma)