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Flashcards in viral infections of skin Deck (57)
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1

what are the viral skin manifestations listed in order from most common to least?

Herpesviruses, coxsackie virus, HPV, poxviruses, measles and rubella

2

what are the sources of viral skin infections?

exogenous (from the environment) or endogeneous (from disseminated infection)

3

how do viruses infect the skin?

through breaks in skin integrity or mucous membranes

4

what are the endogenous causes of viral skin infection?

viremia or reactivation from latency

5

define dermatitis.

inflammation of the skin

6

what is exanthem?

an eruptive disease (infectious rash)

7

define macular, papular and vesicular.

macular is a flat discoloration, papular is a raised patch, vesicular is a raised, fluid filled blister

8

define erythema and petechiae

erythema is redness. petechiae are tiny dark spots due to localized hemorrhage

9

what is pruritis?

itching

10

what is a pustule? what does umbilicated mean?

a vesicle filled with pus. it is umbilicated if it has a dimple in the center

11

what type of virus are herpesviruses? how common are they?

large enveloped DNA viruses. most people are infected with greater than three kinds

12

how are herpesviruses transmitted?

by secretions and mucous membranes of an infected individual with primary or recurrence of a latent infection. asymptomatic shedding also occurs

13

where do herpesviruses establish latency?

in neurons or lymphocytes during primary infection

14

describe primary HSV 1. who does it infect?

usually in childhood. lesions on mouth and face (usually above the waist)

15

where does HSV 1 latency occur? how is it treated and how common is it?

in dorsal root ganglia
treat with oral acyclovir
50-80% of population is infected

16

what are some common names of recurrent HSV1? what percentage of people have recurrence

cold sores, canker sores or fever blisters
20% of people have recurrent lesions

17

what triggers HSV 1 recurrence? what is the treatment?

fever, UV exposure, hormones, stress and physical trauma
treat with acyclovir, zovirax, valtrex and famvir as needed or prophylactically

18

which herpesviruses cause keratitis and corneal scarring? when does primary infection occur? what causes the damage?

HSV 1 and 2
primary infection occurs at birth from vaginal mucosa
caused by infiltration of T cells into the cornea

19

what is herpetic whitlow? how is it treated?

primary HSV 1 or 2 on nonmucosal sites. risk factor is putting bare hands into people's mouths. treat with acyclovir

20

describe primary HSV 2 lesions.

extensive vesicular, pustular and erythematous lesions on penis, labia, anus and possibly oral areas. accompanied by itching, fever malaise and headache

21

why is antiviral treatment important for primary HSV 2 lesions?

to shorten the acute infection and prevent spread to the brain (meningial involvement indicated by malaise and headache)

22

describe recurrent HSV2 lesions. why is treatment important?

prodrome accompanied by vesicular lesions. frequency is variable and prophylactic antiviral can reduce recurrences and transmission.

23

what is the risk for perinatal and congenital infection with HSV2?

most risk during primary infection congenitally. moderate risk for perinatal infection with recurrence

24

what is the primary infection of vericella zoster virus? where is it latent and what is the recurrence?

chicken pox
latent in dorsal root gangial neurons and recurrs as shingles

25

how is varicella transmitted? describe the rash and symptoms

aerosol transmission
fever and malaise precede and accompany rash of dew drops on rose petals on face and trunk (itchy)

26

what are the complications of varicella?

visceral infection, dissemination to the brain, penumonitis and bacterial infection of lesions (increases in severity with age of primary infection)

27

how is varicella treated?

prevented with varivax (vaccine) and treated with acyclovir and foscarnet

28

describe herpes zoster.

prodrome followed by outbreak of vesicular, painful lesions on a single dermitome. more common in elderly and immunocompromised

29

how is zoster treated? what are the possible complications?

acyclovir
keratitis, retinitis, bells palsy and postherpetic neuralgia

30

what is herpes zoster opthalmicus? which tissue are effected? how is it treated?

shingles in the eye that can destroy the retina. effects all tissues of the eye and long lasting pain is common. treat aggressively with acyclovir and IV foscarnet