Flashcards in Anaerobic Life Deck (19):
ex: Listeria, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Helicobacter
Bacrerial type III/IV secretion system injects effectors into host cell --> actin/cytoskeletal components --> protrusions form endocytic vesicles
ex: Salmonella, Shigella, Chlamydia
What type of agar does Legionella require?
BCYE (buffered charcoal yeast extract) + L-cysteine + Iron!
(poorly gram staining, need silver stain to view)
What 2 clinical conditions are caused by Legionella?
1) atypical pneumonia (legionairres)
2) Pontiac Fever
What is the reservoir for Legionella?
amoebae in fresh water
Who is most at risk of falling ill from Legionella?
Pathogenesis of Legionella Pneumophila:
Inhaled --> OMPs/pili bind alveolar macrophage complment receptors --> MIP (macrophage infectivity potentiator) which is a surface protein, enhances phagocytosis --> "coiling phagocytosis" --> once inside, organism secretes effectors via DOT/LCM --> alters maturation of endosomal vacuole
What is the overall mechanism of Legionella's resistance of phagocytic clearance?
resists phagocyte killing by reprogramming phagosome maturation
What is the overall mechanism of Listeria's resistance to phagocytic clearance?
MOA of how listeria resists phagocytic clearance?
entry into cell via zipper mechanism (Internalin A binds E-cadherin) -->phagosome fuses with lysosome --> decreased pH activates Listeriolysin O (LLO) and PLCs --> pore forming toxin which causes lysis of phagosome and bacteria replicates in cytosol --> once in cytosol ActA polymerizes actin and it pushes bacteria into adjacent cells.
which bacteria can effectively avoid destruction by intracellular antimicrobial activity and extracellular immune strategies?
what is the overall mechanism of coxiella's resistance to phagocytic clearance?
resists phagolysosomal killing mechanism
MOA of coxiella's resistance to phagocytic clearance?
phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages --> Lipid A acts as TLR4 ANTAGONIST --> phagosome fuses with lysosomes and recruits many other vacuoles and forms a giant Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) --> Coxiella is activated into replicative form by acidic pH --> Large Cel Variant (LCV) expresses several virulence factors that protect it form antimicorbial elements within vacuole
what is the overall mechanism of mycobacterium TB's resistance to phagocytic clearance?
RESISTANCE! can survive and grow within macrophages. waxy cell wall renders oranism impermeable and resistance to antimicrobial factors. doesn't have normal virulence factors
what is the MOA for mycobaterium's resistance to phagocytic clearance?
phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages (complement receptors or mannose receptors) --> phagosomes inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion (LIPOARABINOMANNAN AND CORD FACTOR (TREHAOLSE DIMYCOLATE)) -->
what is cord factor?
protects mycobacterium TB from destruction. Serpentine stacks of cells.
what is the immune response against mycobacterium TB?
TH1 triggers immune response with production of IFN-gamma. some pathogen will be killed but it is not enough. There is granuloma formation where epitheloid cells coalesce upon IFN-gamma and form multi-nucleated giant cells surrounded by activated T-lymphocytes (mainly CD4).
what is the immune response to Legionella, Listeria, and Coxiella? (and other intracellular pathogens?)
produciton of IFN-gamma by Th1 cells which activated macrophages (and promotes CD8T cell effector functions). IFN-gamma activates macrophages by triggering enhanced receptor-mediated phagocytosis.