Flashcards in vaccines Deck (29):
what are 2 types of passive immunization?
1) non-specific standard (gamma)
2) hyperimmune human immunoglobulin
non-specific standard immunoglobulin (gamma globulin)
mixture of plasma proteins and broad spectrum antibodies.
prevention of disease for which there are no specific immunoglobulin preparations
(one type of passive immunization)
rapid, temporary immunit. purified antibodies or antibody containing serum are given to patient.
protection decreases when immunoglobulins are cleared from recipient's serum. i.e it is very much temporary.
(maternal antibodies that cross placenta and breastmilk are both considered passive immunization)
hyperimmune human immunoglobulin
high concentrations of Abs specific to a particular pathogen. Administered to patient who has been exposed to that pathogen (passive immunization)
what is the main adverse effect associated with injection of preformed antibodies (as in passive immunization?)
anaphylaxis/ immune response against antigenic determinants of foreign antibodies
what are the 3 major types of active immunization?
recipient's immune response is prompted to respond as if the body were experiencing infection with the microorganism (i.e. produces antibodies!). may take weeks to months for individual to develop immunity
components no longer "alive"- cannot replicate
can produce protective immune response without risk of infection by agent.
4 types of inactivated vaccines?
1)Killed bacterium or virus (TDaP)
2) Subunit Vaccine (protective immune response)
1- Recombinant (Hep B) OR Polysaccharides & peptide (i.e. conjugated like streptococcus pneumoniae)
what kind of immune response do polysaccharides initiate?
T-independent B cell response
how do you inactivate components for inactivated vaccines?
3) UV light
what is the mechanism for how at peptide or polysaccharide conjugated vaccine works and what are examples?
capsular polysaccharide conjugated to protein (i.e. diptheria toxoid). --> bound to IgM on B cell --> endocytosed --> expressed on MHC-II to CD4 T cell --> cytokines produces that promote class switch to IgG and memory cells will develop
bacterial toxin (usually an exotoxin) whose toxicity has been inactivated or suppressed either by chemical (formalin) or heat treatment, while other properties, typically immunogenicity, are maintained. Thus, when used during vaccination, an immune response is mounted and immunological memory is formed against the molecular markers of the toxoid without resulting in toxin-induced illness.
There are toxoids for prevention of diphtheria, tetanus and botulism
live vaccines should be avoided by whom?
pregnant and immunocompromised
for which type of vaccine is adjuvant necessary?
are inactived vaccines short or long term?
what is the antibody response to a live vaccine?
IgG/IgA (if oral)
what is the antibody response to inactivated vaccine?
is the cell mediated immune response poor or good for Live vaccine?
good (poor for inactivated)
is booster needed for live attenuated vaccine?
what are examples of Live attenuated vaccies?
MMR - measles, mumps, rubella
genetically engineered vaccine in which genes from infectious agents that cannot be attenuated are insterted into safe viruses
what is the immune response to live vaccine?
Th1 and Th2 with development of cellular, humoral and memory immune responses. Also get effectie innate response. Response on a whole is very robust and long-lived.
Examples of DNA vaccines
MOA of DNA vaccine
naked DNA injected into muscle or skin of recipient where is uses host machinery to express antigenic protein. protein can exit cell where it can be recognized by B cells, APcs in MHC II to CD4 T cells or presented in MHC I to CD8 T lcells
substance that enhances immunogenicity of antigens. stimulate APCs (dendritic)
i.e. Aluminum salts and calcium salts.
Tetanus needs aluminum salts to be immunogenic.
Pertussis alone can work as adjuvant. Pertusses serves as adjuvant for tetanus and diptheria in DPT.
what is the purpose of conjugate vaccine?
T-dependent B lymphocyte response
what is the nature of the conjugate in conjugate vaccines?