Flashcards in anagrams Deck (93):
Baumeister's attributes of successful self control
Standards; Measuring; Strength
How did Flow experiment monitor a person's flow level?
Using daily experience sampling which were self-reported measures through beepers.
3 Criteria that predict goal success?
Desire to change; Readiness to Change; Self-Efficacy
the ability to surpass what one's habits or default behavior is.
Goal Setting involves 3 things: FEP
What are the most common reasons for failure of reaching goals? VTMA
Phrased in avoidance rather approach
Distal goals provide
proximal goals provide
how to overcome self-control limitations?
1. Choose autonomous goals;
2. Support goal with implementation plan.
Goals may be self-initiated but not
What is the difference between Autonomous and controlled behavior?
Autonomous - things you want to do; Controlled things you ought to do.
Virtuous upward cycle
1. Set autonomous goals.
2. Greater progression;
3. Greater adjustment, step 1.
4 Reasons why Autonomous goals are better
1. Greater effort;
2. Less conflict with other goals;
3. Shielding from distraction and temptations;
4. Overcome obstacles better.
According to sheldon, the achievement of one autonomous goals seem to impact other autonomous goals.
What questions to ask when making a goal?
1. Why am I making this goal?
2. Does the goal align with my interests and values?
3. Can i make the goal be attuned to my values (can i make it autonomous)?
Why are implementation plans important?
Because without them, interference from other unplanned and planned goals; and less prepared for unanticipated obstacles.
What are two aspects of implementation plans?
1. Change a "what" goal into "why, when, how, where" goal.
2. Develops if-then plans to prepare for obstacles or unexpected circumstances.
Armitage - 2004
people who make a plan are more likely to reduce fat intake.
Succeed - 7 tips for weight loss.
1. Triggers: Keep healthy triggers around.
2. get autonomy support rather than directive support;
3. Use implementation plans
4. Self-monitor and get feedback.
5. Change environment.
6. Adopt non-competing goals;
7. Adopt promotion goals to loss weight, and prevention focus to keep it off.
R coefficient for Autonomous goals? Implementation plans?
Autonomous goals = 0.20.
Implementation plans = 0.33.
Seligman's advice on weight loss. SFE
Koestner arguments against the impossibility to lose weight. SAI
Sandra Aamodt - TED TALK on eating. H.E.M.
1. Hypothalamus sets our natural weight (we can only deviate 10 lbs).
2. Environment most influential for weight loss success.
3. Mindful eating is best way to prevent weight gains.
3 Essential Human Needs
Autonomy, Relatedness and Competency
3 ways to Boost self-control (IAO)
Outsource self-regulatory support
Showing interest and Empathy
Telling and giving suggestions
Underregulation FMA - #1 reason for failure in goals.
No attention paid to limitations;
Baumeister Transcendence, D.C.E. self-control
Deliberate, conscious and effortful self-control to see beyond the immediate environment and pursue higher value distal goals.
First type: Misunderstanding contingencies and Using wrong strategy to succeed at goal;
Second type: trying to control uncontrollable.
Humanistic perspective on self-control
Focuses on holistic functioning and self-actualization of person.
What happens when success at a goal not related to competency, relatedness and autonomy?
No increase in wellbeing.
Alfie Kohn - Self control and self discipline
Should be dimensional criterion: at the low end careless; at the high end obsessive.
when you become so obsessed on goal, you lose sight of physical safety or personal needs.
Koestner thought on self control regulation
don't suck it up. it is important to consider your health.
What is Jack Blocks "Ego-control"?
Extent to which our feelings and impulses are suppressed or expressed.
For Alfie Kohn what is healthy self-control?
Capacity to choose whether, and when, to persist;
Capacity to choose to control oneself.
Capacity to choose to follow rules.
Unrequited love is what form of regulation?
Mis-regulation, second type - trying to control the uncontrollable.
For unrequited love, what did baumeister find for the pursuer/pursued?
The personality is irrelevant, it is a context based phenomenon.
3 types of Unrequited love situations? FFD
1. Falling upward either physically (most important), but also personality and vocally.
2. When friendships become romantic;
3. When casual dating becomes serious and exclusive.
Pursuer describes experience in unrequited love how?
An adventurous gamble. I tried and failed so bitter-sweet. No empathy toward pursued.
Pursued describes experience in unrequited love how?
Uncomfortable; awkward; a no win situation. Empathetic because have been there before.
Why does unrequited love happen (baumeister)? VD
1. Vicarious learning (underdog in movies);
2. Difficulty delivering rejection (if you give external reasons for rejection the person may think they have a chance);
Koestner re: Unrequited love
Pursuer must adjust goals to realize that relationships are reciprocal; respect other people's opinions and disengage.
Goal adjustment model: GEE
1. Goal pursuit.
2. Experience difficulty.
3. Evaluate success
high chance of success --> continue
Low chance --> disengage.
What happens when you cumulatively fail goals? DSS
Depressed immune functioning; Sleep problems; Stress reactivity increased.
Re-engagement of goal pursuit
Creates new vigor and purpose in life. But goal re-engagement's beneficial effect only occur when you have disengaged from another goal to re-engage this one.
Successful and Satisfied people know what two things according to Wrosch?
When to persist and when to quit.
What is expertise?
Ability times motivation.
What were the treatments done to british college soccer performers? RVP
Positive Self talk
What types of activities are we most likely to experience flow?
Sports & Games;
85% of adults have one flow activity.
60% of people experience flow at work.
Flow re: TV & reading.
While TV is highly relaxing, it is highly passive and unchallenging, requiring little concentration;
The more TV you watch the less flow you experience; for reading it's the opposite.
Why do we watch TV?
It preys on our orienting reflex because there is always something new to watch; we are uncomfortable alone with our thoughts.
Why is it not good to watch TV?
TV relaxation is less than other activities and gets worse over time. Csz. argues we have been negatively conditioned to watch TV.
Kubey & Csz. recommendations for TV
1. Don't give it up totally;
2. Watch with other people;
3. Be a discriminating viewer: plan out what you will watch.
How to experience more flow? DROMC
Develop new skills
Raise the stakes
Overall goal and many subgoals
3 pieces of proof to refute Ericsson's theory? PSS
1. Prodigies - acquire expert performance without having put in expert hours;
2. Savants - don't have any training
3. Superior abilities - perfect pitch, 1/10000.
Wesley Chu was a musical prodigy, btu his skill can be explained by the fact both his parents were musicians;
Feldman's historical analysis suggests that no great musician does not come from a musical family.
Refuting Superior Abilities
Perfect pitch is more common among east asians (1/100) who have more tonal languages;
The superior visuospatial abilities of chess grandmasters only extends to the domain of chess (mental representations);
Savants are obsessive and singleminded. Rather than proving a biological substrate they prove that focus and repetition determines their skill.
2 Strongest arguments from ericsson
1. Failure to find that basic abilities will predict future expertise;
2. No expert has less than 10 years of training.
Repeatedly doing things you already know how to do --> no skill development.
Practice geared towards specific goals without expert/teacher guidance.
Primary goal is to have inherent enjoyment of game (does not lead to skill development).
includes public performance, competitions, and activities that earn money.
Goal is not to learn or improve but deliver what is expected; little focus on skill development.
individualized training on tasks that are selected by instructor.
Importance of deliberate practice GEIR
1. Goal to attend to and improve performance;
2. Explicit instructions on how to get better performance;
3. Immediate feedback;
4. repeatedly perform same task to become automatic (stephan curry practices 1 hr before game).
Basketball Hoosier movie
Practice is focused on skills. It is not fun it involves focus, attention, drive, perserverance and hard work.
Sherbrooke basketball player exercises 3 hours on drills and practices when gym is closed.
Which sports require most training?
Basketball; Ice Skating; Diving;
Sport Teams & Deliberate practice
teams who do more deliberate practice do better at competitions than teams that do mostly competitions; Competitions by themselves do not improve skills.
Working correlates poorly with
Going from amateur to expert is a function of how much deliberate practice you have accumulated. maximum 4 hours a day to avoid burnout.
Monotonic benefits assumption
Performance is a monotonic function of the number of hours of deliberate practice a person has accumulated in the domain.
Accumulated deliberate practice
Amount of weekly practice & the age of which someone began
Ericsson's study on musicians
The best musicians had the greatest quality of deliberate practice;
Difference between purposeful and deliberate practise?
Purposeful practice has no coach to guide you.
For what types of events do we have unrealistic optimism? CNR
2. Not so bad events
3. Rare events
3 stages of talent development
Stage 1. Parents introduce many skills (exposure and playful interaction.
Stage 2. Internalization
Stage 3. Deliberate practise.
3 Features of families of sport
1. Child centered;
2. Achievement oriented
3. Responsabilities oriented.
When you have two competing goals, one of them will be deactivated.
What is polivy and herman's false hope syndrome?
1. Initial expectations are overly optimistic.
2. Commitment to change
3. Initial efforts
4. Resistance to change
5. Abandonment strategy
6. Attribution to lack of self control.
7. Physiological, emotional, behavioral consequences.
What is Flow? CICASA
Clarity of Goals
Challenge and skills are matched
Absorption in task
Sense of personal control
Altered sense of time.
Intrinsic Motivation- Deci
Flow from another perspective. Natural propensity to engage one's interests and exercise one capacities. Done volitonally and helps us to learn.
When we are instrinsically motivated, we naturally pursue challenge.
Kermie Award in 4th grade
Reading in 3rd grade is a predictor of school success and other related outcomes; Children were told that they could win the kermie toy by reading more books.
Children began to read as much to win contest. No longer fully engaged. Could not remember plot of book.
Channeling type of books?
PIZZA HUT PROGRAM
Competition decreased IM for children who already liked to read.
What is the Intrinsic motivation/extrinsic motivation trade-off?
Quality vs. quantity
Being aware of the contingency
undermines instrinsic motivation
Rewards increase motivation when?
for boring tasks.
Symbolic / tangible awards
no difference; same negative effect.