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Flashcards in anagrams Deck (93):
1

Gardner intelligences

Linguistic/Verbal
Interpersonal
Visuospatial
intrapersonal
Musical
Bodily Kinesthetic
Logical/mathematical

2

Baumeister's attributes of successful self control

Standards; Measuring; Strength

3

How did Flow experiment monitor a person's flow level?

Using daily experience sampling which were self-reported measures through beepers.

4

3 Criteria that predict goal success?

Desire to change; Readiness to Change; Self-Efficacy

5

Self Control

the ability to surpass what one's habits or default behavior is.

6

Goal Setting involves 3 things: FEP

Focused Attention
Effort
Persistence

7

What are the most common reasons for failure of reaching goals? VTMA

Vague
Too easy
Too many
Phrased in avoidance rather approach

8

Distal goals provide

inspiration

9

proximal goals provide

guidance

10

how to overcome self-control limitations?

1. Choose autonomous goals;
2. Support goal with implementation plan.

11

Goals may be self-initiated but not

Self-endorsed

12

What is the difference between Autonomous and controlled behavior?

Autonomous - things you want to do; Controlled things you ought to do.

13

Virtuous upward cycle

1. Set autonomous goals.
2. Greater progression;
3. Greater adjustment, step 1.

14

4 Reasons why Autonomous goals are better

1. Greater effort;
2. Less conflict with other goals;
3. Shielding from distraction and temptations;
4. Overcome obstacles better.

15

Goal contagion

According to sheldon, the achievement of one autonomous goals seem to impact other autonomous goals.

16

What questions to ask when making a goal?

1. Why am I making this goal?
2. Does the goal align with my interests and values?
3. Can i make the goal be attuned to my values (can i make it autonomous)?

17

Why are implementation plans important?

Because without them, interference from other unplanned and planned goals; and less prepared for unanticipated obstacles.

18

What are two aspects of implementation plans?

1. Change a "what" goal into "why, when, how, where" goal.
2. Develops if-then plans to prepare for obstacles or unexpected circumstances.

19

Armitage - 2004

people who make a plan are more likely to reduce fat intake.

20

Succeed - 7 tips for weight loss.
TAISEAP

1. Triggers: Keep healthy triggers around.
2. get autonomy support rather than directive support;
3. Use implementation plans
4. Self-monitor and get feedback.
5. Change environment.
6. Adopt non-competing goals;
7. Adopt promotion goals to loss weight, and prevention focus to keep it off.

21

R coefficient for Autonomous goals? Implementation plans?

Autonomous goals = 0.20.
Implementation plans = 0.33.

22

Seligman's advice on weight loss. SFE

Focus on:
Self Acceptance
Fitness
Healthy eating

23

Koestner arguments against the impossibility to lose weight. SAI

Social support;
Autonomous goals;
Implementation plans;

24

Sandra Aamodt - TED TALK on eating. H.E.M.

1. Hypothalamus sets our natural weight (we can only deviate 10 lbs).
2. Environment most influential for weight loss success.
3. Mindful eating is best way to prevent weight gains.

25

3 Essential Human Needs

Autonomy, Relatedness and Competency

26

3 ways to Boost self-control (IAO)

Implementation plans;
Autonomous goals;
Outsource self-regulatory support

27

Autonomous Support

Showing interest and Empathy

28

Directive Support

Telling and giving suggestions

29

Underregulation FMA - #1 reason for failure in goals.

No focus;
No monitoring;
No attention paid to limitations;

30

Baumeister Transcendence, D.C.E. self-control

Deliberate, conscious and effortful self-control to see beyond the immediate environment and pursue higher value distal goals.

31

Misregulation

First type: Misunderstanding contingencies and Using wrong strategy to succeed at goal;
Second type: trying to control uncontrollable.

32

Humanistic perspective on self-control

Focuses on holistic functioning and self-actualization of person.

33

What happens when success at a goal not related to competency, relatedness and autonomy?

No increase in wellbeing.

34

Alfie Kohn - Self control and self discipline

Should be dimensional criterion: at the low end careless; at the high end obsessive.

35

Overregulation

when you become so obsessed on goal, you lose sight of physical safety or personal needs.

36

Koestner thought on self control regulation

don't suck it up. it is important to consider your health.

37

What is Jack Blocks "Ego-control"?

Extent to which our feelings and impulses are suppressed or expressed.

38

For Alfie Kohn what is healthy self-control?
CWCF

Capacity to choose whether, and when, to persist;
Capacity to choose to control oneself.
Capacity to choose to follow rules.

39

Unrequited love is what form of regulation?

Mis-regulation, second type - trying to control the uncontrollable.

40

For unrequited love, what did baumeister find for the pursuer/pursued?

The personality is irrelevant, it is a context based phenomenon.

41

3 types of Unrequited love situations? FFD

1. Falling upward either physically (most important), but also personality and vocally.
2. When friendships become romantic;
3. When casual dating becomes serious and exclusive.

42

Pursuer describes experience in unrequited love how?

An adventurous gamble. I tried and failed so bitter-sweet. No empathy toward pursued.

43

Pursued describes experience in unrequited love how?

Uncomfortable; awkward; a no win situation. Empathetic because have been there before.

44

Why does unrequited love happen (baumeister)? VD

1. Vicarious learning (underdog in movies);
2. Difficulty delivering rejection (if you give external reasons for rejection the person may think they have a chance);

45

Koestner re: Unrequited love

Pursuer must adjust goals to realize that relationships are reciprocal; respect other people's opinions and disengage.

46

Goal adjustment model: GEE

1. Goal pursuit.
2. Experience difficulty.
3. Evaluate success
high chance of success --> continue
Low chance --> disengage.

47

What happens when you cumulatively fail goals? DSS

Depressed immune functioning; Sleep problems; Stress reactivity increased.

48

Re-engagement of goal pursuit

Creates new vigor and purpose in life. But goal re-engagement's beneficial effect only occur when you have disengaged from another goal to re-engage this one.

49

Successful and Satisfied people know what two things according to Wrosch?

When to persist and when to quit.

50

What is expertise?

Ability times motivation.

51

What were the treatments done to british college soccer performers? RVP

Relaxation training;
Visualization;
Positive Self talk

52

What types of activities are we most likely to experience flow?

Sports & Games;
85% of adults have one flow activity.
60% of people experience flow at work.

53

Flow re: TV & reading.

While TV is highly relaxing, it is highly passive and unchallenging, requiring little concentration;

The more TV you watch the less flow you experience; for reading it's the opposite.

54

Why do we watch TV?

It preys on our orienting reflex because there is always something new to watch; we are uncomfortable alone with our thoughts.

55

Why is it not good to watch TV?

TV relaxation is less than other activities and gets worse over time. Csz. argues we have been negatively conditioned to watch TV.

56

Kubey & Csz. recommendations for TV

1. Don't give it up totally;
2. Watch with other people;
3. Be a discriminating viewer: plan out what you will watch.

57

How to experience more flow? DROMC

Develop new skills
Raise the stakes
Overall goal and many subgoals
Monitor Progress
Challenge yourself

58

3 pieces of proof to refute Ericsson's theory? PSS

1. Prodigies - acquire expert performance without having put in expert hours;
2. Savants - don't have any training
3. Superior abilities - perfect pitch, 1/10000.

59

Refuting Prodigies

Wesley Chu was a musical prodigy, btu his skill can be explained by the fact both his parents were musicians;

Feldman's historical analysis suggests that no great musician does not come from a musical family.

60

Refuting Superior Abilities

Perfect pitch is more common among east asians (1/100) who have more tonal languages;
The superior visuospatial abilities of chess grandmasters only extends to the domain of chess (mental representations);

61

Refuting Savants

Savants are obsessive and singleminded. Rather than proving a biological substrate they prove that focus and repetition determines their skill.

62

2 Strongest arguments from ericsson

1. Failure to find that basic abilities will predict future expertise;
2. No expert has less than 10 years of training.

63

Naive Practice

Repeatedly doing things you already know how to do --> no skill development.

64

Purposeful practice

Practice geared towards specific goals without expert/teacher guidance.

65

Play

Primary goal is to have inherent enjoyment of game (does not lead to skill development).

66

Work

includes public performance, competitions, and activities that earn money.

Goal is not to learn or improve but deliver what is expected; little focus on skill development.

67

Deliberate practice

individualized training on tasks that are selected by instructor.

68

Importance of deliberate practice GEIR

1. Goal to attend to and improve performance;
2. Explicit instructions on how to get better performance;
3. Immediate feedback;
4. repeatedly perform same task to become automatic (stephan curry practices 1 hr before game).

69

Basketball Hoosier movie

Practice is focused on skills. It is not fun it involves focus, attention, drive, perserverance and hard work.

70

Bob Vallerand

Sherbrooke basketball player exercises 3 hours on drills and practices when gym is closed.

71

Which sports require most training?

Basketball; Ice Skating; Diving;

72

Sport Teams & Deliberate practice

teams who do more deliberate practice do better at competitions than teams that do mostly competitions; Competitions by themselves do not improve skills.

73

Working correlates poorly with

Skill development

74

Becoming Expert

Going from amateur to expert is a function of how much deliberate practice you have accumulated. maximum 4 hours a day to avoid burnout.

75

Monotonic benefits assumption

Performance is a monotonic function of the number of hours of deliberate practice a person has accumulated in the domain.

76

Accumulated deliberate practice

Amount of weekly practice & the age of which someone began

77

Ericsson's study on musicians

The best musicians had the greatest quality of deliberate practice;

78

Difference between purposeful and deliberate practise?

Purposeful practice has no coach to guide you.

79

For what types of events do we have unrealistic optimism? CNR

1. Controllable.
2. Not so bad events
3. Rare events

80

3 stages of talent development

Stage 1. Parents introduce many skills (exposure and playful interaction.
Stage 2. Internalization
Stage 3. Deliberate practise.

81

3 Features of families of sport

1. Child centered;
2. Achievement oriented
3. Responsabilities oriented.

82

Goal shielding

When you have two competing goals, one of them will be deactivated.

83

What is polivy and herman's false hope syndrome?

1. Initial expectations are overly optimistic.
2. Commitment to change
3. Initial efforts
4. Resistance to change
5. Abandonment strategy
6. Attribution to lack of self control.
7. Physiological, emotional, behavioral consequences.

84

What is Flow? CICASA

Clarity of Goals
Immediate feedback
Challenge and skills are matched
Absorption in task
Sense of personal control
Altered sense of time.

85

Intrinsic Motivation- Deci

Flow from another perspective. Natural propensity to engage one's interests and exercise one capacities. Done volitonally and helps us to learn.

When we are instrinsically motivated, we naturally pursue challenge.

86

Kermie Award in 4th grade

Reading in 3rd grade is a predictor of school success and other related outcomes; Children were told that they could win the kermie toy by reading more books.

Children began to read as much to win contest. No longer fully engaged. Could not remember plot of book.

87

Channeling type of books?

Backfires IM

88

PIZZA HUT PROGRAM

Competition decreased IM for children who already liked to read.

89

What is the Intrinsic motivation/extrinsic motivation trade-off?

Quality vs. quantity

90

Being aware of the contingency

undermines instrinsic motivation

91

Rewards increase motivation when?

for boring tasks.

92

Symbolic / tangible awards

no difference; same negative effect.

93

Cognitive evaluation theory

External events can have 1 of 3 meanings:
Informational;
Controlling;
Amotivational

IM varies with perception of competency/autonomy