Flashcards in Lecture 13 - 23 Deck (79):
Young children are engaged in books before they even learn how to read
" Best bedtime routine is reading
" SES differences
o Educated parent: 1000 hours of reading
o Low SES parent: 10-15 hours of reading
Reading in the 3rd grade is a predictor
school success and other related outcomes
Kermie Award in 4th grade
" Children began trying to get as much reading hours as possible in order to win the contest
" They were no longer fully engaged, some not being able to recall the plot of the books they read
" Channeling the type of books of interest
You can determine whether or not there is any intrinsic motivation left
by looking at what happens during free time when there is less pressure from school or work, such as winter break
" Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
do not combine!
Giving rewards to children who draw pictures does what?
Undermine their intrinsic motivation; Those who got rewards would make more pictures, but of lower quality. Thus there's a tradeoff between quality and quantity.
" Being aware of the contingency
undermines intrinsic motivation
with respect to rewards, the younger the child?
the more damaging it is
Regardless of the way the reward is administered, physical or verbal,
there was undermining of intrinsic motivation.
children engaging in activities for rewards smiled and laughed less, overall displaying lower enjoyment.
" Extrinsic and intrinsically motivated activities involve something phenomenologically different
COGNITIVE EVALUATION THEORY
1. Intrinsic motivation varies with perceived autonomy
2. Intrinsic motivation varies with perceived competence
3. External events can have 1/3 meanings:
Four ways to get children IM to reading
" Allowing them to read topics they are interested in or are relevant to them
" Providing interesting, relevant text
" Facilitating social interaction around books
" Using hands-on activities to spark interest
, there is a marked discrepancy in reading level depending on
family SES. significant positive effect of books, especially those from low SES families
" "Quality" of books didn't matter
" Don't try to channel students' reading, just maintain their intrinsic motivation!
Cooperation is associated with…
" Greater IM
" Greater mastery of principles and concepts
" Greater development of communication skills
" Better attitudes towards teachers, school, and classmates (incl. opposite sex and minorities)
" Higher self-esteem and mental health
It would be wrong to conclude that personal choice is of no value, as it benefits both groups.
It is just that the Mom's choice condition works better than personal choice for Asian-Americans.
process by which cultural beliefs and practices are adopted by the individual then enacted in the absence of immediate external contingencies or constraints.
DECI AND RYAN'S THEORY OF INTERNALIZATION
1. Children are willing (even active) participants in the process
2. The social context influences which internalization process and regulatory style occurs
taking in a value or regulatory process but not accepting it as one's own
o Most common path but not ideal
o Incomplete internalization
o Only because of their controlling parents (guilt, reward, punishment)
o Associated with inner conflict, alienation, guilt, and desire to rebel
o Swallowing without digesting
" Identification and integration:
fully assimilating a regulation with one's core sense of self
o Based on own initiative
o Swallowing and digesting
What is the second most important motivational process after IM
The degree to which immigrants fully internalize their host and heritage cultures will importantly relate to their adjustment.
2. Only endorsement of heritage culture is associated with
1. The way you internalize the host culture is
not associated with global wellbeing.
IMMIGRANTS TO MONTREAL
1. Autonomy-support was significantly associated with autonomous internalization of heritage culture (mother and father)
2. Internalization of heritage cultural values was associated with better wellbeing
3. Internalization of host cultural values was significantly associated with better wellbeing
CHINESE-MALAYSIAN SOJOURNERS TO THE US, CANADA, UK AND AUSTRALIA
" Autonomy-support was significantly associated with autonomous internalization of heritage culture
" Internalization of heritage cultural values was significantly associated with better adjustment (in the host country) for all participants
experiences of autonomy are critical to the successful adaptation of immigrants because
they promote successful cultural internalization and integration.
Individualistic vs. collectivistic:
priority given to individual's goals and preferences vs. priority given to needs, norms and goals of the group or collective
Egalitarian vs. hierarchical:
emphasis on equality and interchangeability among people vs. emphasis on hierarchical and subordinate social relations
When it comes to how easy a cultural dimensional is to interalize?
There is no difference between individualistic and collectivist cultures. But vertical/hierarchial societies are hard to integrate
More than half of Kyrgyzstan's married women were snatched from the street by their husbands
Once a woman has been taken to a man's home, her future in-laws try to calm her down and get a white wedding shawl on her head.
The shawl, a jooluk, is a symbol of her submission. Many women fight fiercely, but about 80% of those kidnapped eventually relent, often at the urging of their own parents.
FARAH'S INDICATORS OF GROWING UP IN A "POOR" FAMILY
Net result of growing up in poverty: unpredictable, dangerous, and highly stressful
Consequences of living in poverty:
1. 15-point drop in IQ
2. Allostatic load: biological measure of stress (cortisol)
" Increases as a function of years living in poverty
3. Brain functioning
" Working memory
" Executive function
" Language abilities
Growth Processes for Self- Determination
1. Intrinsic motivation
Necessary conditions for self-determination
PARENTS' ROLE IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND NURTURING OF CHILDREN
Serve and volley:
there must be reciprocity between the child and parent for normal development
" For children growing up in poverty, supporting autonomy is not the key issue. With these children,
more basic needs (connectedness and competence) are of higher importance.
o Permanent delay in ability to exercise self-control; problems in rest of their development
CHILD LANGUAGE STUDY BY HART AND RISLEY (1995)
For two weeks, a tape recorder was put on the child to count the number of words they listened to. This was used to extrapolate the number of total words by age 4
" Professional: 45 million
" Working class: 26 million
" Welfare: 13 million
if living in welfare, childrean hear how many times less words than a professional parent?
children from a professional family background have comparable vocabulary usage
as the mother of a 5-year-old child living in poverty.
The number of hours spent reading picture books by age 5
1. Professional: 1500 hours
2. Poverty: 20 hours
Children were reading about 75x less if living in welfare.
The Great Smoky Mountain Study
Moving families out of poverty led to a reduction in children's behavioral symptoms.
" It was found that the negative consequences on development from living in poverty are not due to genetics or a predisposition, but due to income.
" Even at the age of 21, the gains (e.g. self-control and school attainment) were maintained
mediating mechanism for poverty and child outcome?
amount of time parents had to supervise their children
WHAT ARE THE MOTIVATIONAL RISKS OF GROWING UP IN A WEALTHY FAMILY?
Over-parenting rather than under-parenting
Controlled motivation rather than no motivation
Highly demanding and pressuring goals from which you feel alienated (rather than meaningful goals that seem realistic)
feelings of self-worth depend on certain levels of good performance
" Can be transferred to child's attainments, especially when competition and responsibility are highlighted
" Cumulative effect of parents being only focused on the absolute best
Parents naturally tend to
become ego involved. In one condition, a phrase highlighting the parent's role was included. This was enough for parents to go on edge and become hyper-driven to push their children
Koestner believes when you enter a new subculture such as like a parent
you're constantly wondering what do good parents do, such as breast feeding for child even tho no evidence.
MEDIATING MECHANISMS for worse outcomes for affluent youth?
1. Excessive parental pressure for achievement
" Achievement area is general: sports, school, music, and even having high-quality friends
" Parents emphasize accomplishments, instead of character and wellbeing
" Over-control and focus on extrinsic factors
2. Isolation from parents
" Absence of adult supervision
" Degree of perceived closeness with mother and father
1) Spend less time with their parents
2) Psychological and physical isolation
lack of connectedness and autonomy
lack of connectedness and competence
KEY FEATURES OF HYPER-PARENTING
1. Ego-involvement in child's goals
2. Micro-managing child's development
3. Over-scheduling enrichment activities
The Amish core values:
" Community and family
1) Being humble is the #1 personality trait. However, the Amish believed that going to school would make children prideful and narcissistic. Thus, they fought to have the legal age for school entrance changed. They made a compromise: go to school for some hours then work on the farm.
rate of depression in the US has increased 4x,
and the first incidence is now in the 20's
THE CULTURAL ORIGINS OF DEPRESSION (BROWN)
While sadness, unhappiness, and grief are inevitable, this is not true of depression. Its origins are closely tied to the quality of core social roles.
KASSER'S EXPLORATION OF THE VALUES UNDERLYING THE AMERICAN DREAM
Lower well-being is associated with having extrinsic goals focused on rewards, praise, and competition relatively central to one's personality in comparison to intrinsic goals that are congruent with inherent growth tendencies.
Two broad classes of aspirations distinguished on the basis of content (KASSER)
1. Extrinsic aspirations depend on contingent reaction of others, and are typically engaged in as a means to an end.
" Not satisfying nor gratifying on its own, but is pursued to achieve other things
" Substitute needs that we have been subliminally oriented towards (e.g. wealth, beauty and popularity)
2. Intrinsic aspirations are expressive of natural growth tendencies, and are likely to satisfy basic psychological needs
" Basic needs: autonomy, relatedness and competence.
Intrinsic Aspirations are likely to lead to what
" Close relationships
" Community investment
" Personal growth
" Money í rewards
" Fame í competition
" Appealing image í praise
Those who rated friendship, community and personal growth highly
higher self-actuality and vitality and lower depression and physical symptoms.
those focused on beauty, popularity and wealth
low self-actualization and higher depression
In Germany, there was a low level of both extrinsic and intrinsic aspirations.
It is actually the balance between extrinsic and intrinsic aspiration that is important.
America promotes the importance of extrinsic factors more
blatantly than other cultures.
Intrinsic minus extrinsic
With the Germans (just like Americans), the higher the focus on intrinsic factors,
the higher the self-actualization and lower the depression. " This seems to be a universal phenomenon- regardless of culture
intrinsic aspirations are related to
lower mental health problems
significant positive relationship between materialistic attitudes and consumeristic beliefs
a shift in focus on more extrinsic values results in a corresponding drop in mental health.
An example of this change is seen across the 3-4 years of law school.
Females: high heel shoes
" Incredibly painful but wear them because we feel attractive
" The average American woman wears heels one size too small
" The most popular cosmetic surgery is foot surgery
" Boys age 14-16 commonly ask about steroids, even those not in sports
" The heart of the problem is that they work: they bulk you up and make you powerful
" Take them for competition and because the ideal man is someone buff and cut
The reasons why a person aspires either to be financially successful or to become involved in their community are more important
than the aspiration itself.
REASONS FOR ASPIRATION
" Because people will be more attracted to me
" Because it will make my family proud
REASONS FOR ASPIRATION
" Because it would be fun
" Because it would be satisfying
" Intrinsic motivation for financial success
MOTIVATION AND PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR
Your motivation for engaging in prosocial behavior is critical in whether you feel good about doing the act, which is also picked up by the person help.
" The other person can sense whether you are doing something for intrinsic or extrinsic reasons
DOES IT MATTER WHETHER YOU ACHIEVE YOUR ASPIRATIONS?
College seniors who valued intrinsic aspirations were more likely to say that they achieved more in terms of friendships, community involvement and self-growth.
those pursuing more extrinsic values also attained what they were looking for. However, they experienced more psychological distress, and attainment of their aspiration was unrelated to their wellbeing.
Koestner believed that the requirement of community service in school would have a negative impact on his daughter's intrinsic motivation to become involved in her community.
contrary to his expectations, volunteer work has a positive effect.
WHAT KASSER RECOMMENDS
1. We cannot altogether abandon an interest in money, status, and appearance
2. We should, instead, make sure that our focus on these aspirations is moderate and outweighed by intrinsic aspirations
3. We should become aware of societal, social, and personal factors that drive us towards materialistic values
" e.g. Facebook can be used in two ways:
1) Keep in touch and connect with others; self-expression
" This may reinforce intrinsic values
" However, most do not use Facebook for this purpose
2) Compare yourself with others and to rate others
" This may reinforce extrinsic values
" Dysphoric and addictive