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Flashcards in Hm2 Deck (55):

What three things do parents do to encourage children?

Offer rewards, offer praise, foster competition


What did the Pizza Hut Program demonstrate?

By offering pizza as incentive for kids, intrinsic motivation for reading books decreased


What three things did Lepper et al., 1973 demonstrate about intrinsic motivation?

1. Children who weren’t rewarded spent 17% of their time on average during the free choice period, where those children who were rewarded had significantly less interest;
2. external reward can subtract from intrinsic motivation; rewards change the way kids engage in activity – i.e. rewarded kids had more pictures that weren’t as high in quality; 3. unexpected reward does not have a negative effect


Negative effects of rewards are most/least detrimental in children



What are four of the five correlates of IM?

1. Enjoyment; pursuit of challenge;
2. cognitive flexibility and creativity;
3. spontaneity and expressiveness;
4. positive emotional tone in relation to others
5. pursuing challenges


What is Harter’s finding about grade school and IM?

1. As we progress through grade school, level of curiosity/interest declines; the longer amount of time in a system that emphasizes rewards and controls, the lower the IM


According to Harter’s research there is a drop at which school transition?

Junior High


What are the four effective methods of promoting reading motivation and comprehension?

1Encouraging choice; providing interesting, relevant texts; facilitating social interaction around books; using hands-on activities to spark interest


What did Allington et al., 2010 demonstrate?

1. Assigning books over the summer (especially for children with low SES) showed a positive effect in reading achievement 3 years later


What are the four common functions of praise?

Create a bond; motivate; protect; manipulate


According to Brophy, what are the three things that are necessary for praise to act as a reinforcer?

Praise must be contingent, specific, and credible


What is the main conclusion from Brophy’s classic study of third grade teachers?

Teachers do not use praise very much and are not using it in a scientifically relevant way


What are Brophy’s nine functions of praise? (praise as…)

1. Positive guidance; transition ritual; balance for criticism; icebreaker/peace offering; consolation prize/encouragement; vindication of predictions; attempted vicarious reinforcement; student-elicited stroking; spontaneous expression of surprise or admiration


What are four things is the interpretation of praise dependent on?

1. Type of relationship; type of praise; age, gender, cultural background; public nature


What does Deci say you need to figure out to analyze the impact of praise?

How salient will the child’s feelings of competence and feelings of being controlled be?


What does spontaneous praise do?

. Spontaneous praise leads to confidence
leads to intrinsic motivation


According to the positive sandwich video, what will effective feedback do?

Improve performance, reduce conflict, and create autonomy


What does Koestner think about praise?

Undermining praise if you’re a coach or teacher is somewhat rare


According to Avi Assor, what will happen when children are raised with conditional praise?

Be overly concerned with how their parents are evaluating them


What are the three main effects of conditional parental regard?

Rewards, praise, competition


What are the three ways to motivate others?

Sports enjoyment; involvement opportunities; personal investments; involvement alternatives; social constraints


What are the five factors to predict whether or not a child will stay involved in a sport?

Competition/lose; competition/controlling; competition/informational; demonstrated that non/controlling competition can retain intrinsic motivation, whereas, non-controlling/lose and controlling/win decreases IM


What were the three conditions of the Reeve and Deci study and what did the study demonstrate?

If you can focus on the challenge rather than the competition, then competition may be a way to foster IM


What is Reeve and Deci’s conclusion?

If you can focus on the challenge rather than the competition, then competition may be a way to foster IM


What are three things that teachers can do to help children maintain their IM?

Encourage cooperation; contextualize and personalize learning; support autonomy


What are the methods used in Finnish schools?

Cooperative classroom structures; practical, relevant learning; autonomy support for both students and teachers


What is Reeve’s conclusion about classrooms?

The best classrooms are high in both structure and autonomy


What are the three C’s according to Haliwell?

Thinking conceptually, critically, and creatively


What were the results of the Zuckerman et al. study about free choice and puzzles?

Giving people a choice of 8 puzzles retained IM rather than telling them to make 3 or 4


What was the difference between Anglo-American and Asian-American performance when asked to make anagrams with different colored markers?

Anglo-americans performed better when given choice; Asian americans performed best when mother’s chose


If you are from an Eastern collectivistic culture, the self is likely to be interdependent/independent when making a choice and may feel more natural when it is not/it is line with their in-group

Interdependent; it is in line


What do the cultural studies of mono-cultural and multi-cultural studies show?

Principle that an individual’s beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual’s own culture


What is volition?

The power of using one’s will


What is cultural internalization?

Process by which cultural beliefs and practices are adopted by the individual and then enacted in the absence of immediate external contingencies or constraints


What are the different processes of internalization?

Introjection; identification and integration


What is Deci & Ryan’s Theory of Internalization?

(1) children are willing and even active participants in the process (2) there are different processes by which internalization occurs (3) these different internalization processes result in qualitatively different styles of self-regulation (4) the social context influences which internalization process and regulatory style occurs


What are the four dimensions of culture?

Individualistic vs. collectivistic; horizontal vs. vertical


Which of the dimensions can be internalized?

Individualistic, collectivist, horizontal VERTICAL CANNOT


What are the primary goals of parenting environments according to Deci and Baumeister?

Need autonomy support, structures, relatedness


What is the deciding factor/mediating mechanism of parenting and successful children?

Parental time with children


What are three motivational risks of growing up in a wealthy family?

Amotivation vs. controlled motivation
No meaningful goals that seem realistic vs. highly demanding and pressuring goals from which you feel alienated
Excessive parental pressure for achievement
Isolation from parents


What are the mediating mechanisms of growing up in a wealthy family?

Under-parenting vs. over-parenting
Amotivation vs. controlled motivation


What are key features of hyper-parenting?

Identity is largely defined by the parent role; there is no separation of child’s and parents goals; child’s performance indicates success; micro-managing child’s development; over-scheduling of enrichment activities


What are the two classes of aspirations?

Achieving extrinsic motivations decrease well-being – even if a person attains them, they still cannot be happy


What are the two principles of change?

Need to understand what causes people to prioritize materialistic values; promote intrinsic values


What are the two key motivational concepts according to Deci?

Autonomous motivation and autonomy support


Define them:

Autonomous motivation feeling a sense of volition and choice in one’s behavior; Autonomy support take and acknowledging patient’s perspective, prove choices, provide meaningful rationale


What is the 4A method?

Ask; advise; assist; arrange


What are the three most common reasons for not taking medication?

1. Illness causes fewer symptoms than medication; 2. incapable of changing habits; 3. demands of work and family life


What is motivational interviewing?

1. Patient-centered, directive counseling style that builds on intrinsic motivation to facilitate change in health-related behaviors


What are the four principles of MI?

Supporting Self Efficacy
Developing Discrepancy
Express Empathy
Rolling with resistance


What are OARS?

Open ended questions
Reflective listening


What are the goals of MI?

Develop discrepancy, decrease ambivalence; self-change; enhance readiness to change


Efficacy is enhanced by negativity ?



_____________ is the best predictor of therapist success