A parralel-plate capacitor consists of…?

Two conductive plates seperated by a dielectric layer

Does net charge cross a capictor?

No

What do capacitors try to do to the voltage across the plate?

Try to keep it constant

What does the cicrcuit symbol for capacitance look like?

What does a capacitor represent in terms of fluid flow analogy?

A capacitor represents a reservoir with an elastic membrane separating the intlet and outlet

What is the equation for charge?

q=Cv

What is the relationship between current and voltage?

v(t) = ?

This is the graph of voltage vs time, what would charge vs time and current vs time look like?

Voltage is the intergral of…?

Current

w(t) = ?

w(t) = ½vq = q^{2 }/2c =

If this is v-t, what would i-t, p-t and w-t look like?

How do you work out the total capacitance for capacitors in parralel?

Add them up (suppose to be C_{3} - it’s in the book)

How do you work out the total capacitance for capacitors in series?

1/C

What’s the equation for the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor?

What does an inductor look like?

Basic equations for inductor/conductance?

How do you work out inductors in **series** and in **parallel**?

- In
**series**- You
**add**them

- You
- In
**parallel******You do**1/L**

It’s exactly the same as resistors!

Capacitors don’t like…?

Instantaneous changes in __voltage__

Inductors don’t like…?

Instantaneous changes in __current__

V_{1}(t) = ?

V_{1}(t) = V_{s}(1-e^{-t/2})

2 equations

L/R and

3 equations

And V = IR & V = CR

For infinite steady state; (what type of circuit)

- Inductors = ?
- Capcitors = ?
- Voltage across the capacitor = ?

- Inductors = closed/short circuit
- Capacitors = Open circuit
- 0V

How is the homogeneous equation obtained?

By setting the forcing function to zero

- What is the forcing function?
- And if we have a circuit without sources, what is the forcing function?
- And what is the forcing function for dc sources?

- A function of only resistances and the inductance (or capacitance)
- 0
- Constant

How is the natural response obtained?

By solving the homogeneous equation

V_{RMS} = ?

cos^{2}(z) = ?

(1 + cos(2z))/2

How do you solve phasers?

- Determine the phasors
- Change the phasors to cartesian (rectangular) form
- Add Re and Im part
- Express sum as phason (polar form)
- Express as a time (cos) function

- Leading is…
- Lagging is…

- Leading is
**infront** - Lagging is
**behind**

- R = ?
- Z (____ ____) = ? = ?

- R = V/I
- Z (Complex impeadance) = V/I = jWL

Z_{L} = ?

Current lags

Z_{c} = ?

Voltage lags

w (omega) = ? (two equations)

= 2π/T

f = ?

f = 1/T

v(t) = ? (cos one)

sin(z) = ? (for degrees and radions)

V_{rms} = ?

P_{avg} = ?

P_{avg} = I^{2}_{rms}R

V = ? so ?(diff) = ? so eventually = ?

What does V1 lead V2 by?

60°

For a **pure resistance**, current and voltage are…?

In phase

What do power triangles for ****

**Inductive**loads**Capacitive**loads

Look like?

What does the **Thévenin equivalent** for an **ac** **circuit** consist of?

A **phasor voltage source, Vt,** in **series** with a **complex impedance Z**

What does a **Norton equivalent circuit** consist of?

A **phasor current source** in in **parallel** with the **complex impedance Zt**

Averge power over a period P =?

I_{rms} = ?

What would a balanced 3 phase voltage source look like?

P = ? (resistance equations)

P = I^{2}R and P = V^{2}/R

The term cosØ is called…?

**Power factor** or **power angle**

Reactive power Q = ?

Q = V_{rms}I_{rms}sin(Ø)

V_{m} = ?

w(omega) = ?

Ø = ?

V_{m} = Maximum value

w(omega) = Angular frequency (Rad/s)

Ø = Phase angle

Power traingle for inductive loads? (ø positive)

Power triangle for Capacitive load? (ø negative)

Triangle for z?

The impeadance z = ? (additional power relationships)

In this equation

P = V^{2}_{Rrms}/R

V_{Rrms }is the…?

V_{Rrms }is the rms voltage **across the resistance**

In this equation

Q = V^{2}_{X}_{rms}/X

V_{X}_{rms} is the…?

V_{X}_{rms} is the rms voltage **across the reactance**

X is ____ for inductance

X is negative for ____

X is ** positive** for inductance

X is negative for __conductance__

In Thévenin Equivalent Circuits,

V_{t} = ?

Z_{t} = ?

V_{t} = V_{oc}

Z_{t} = V_{oc}/I_{sc} = V_{t}/I_{sc}

If the circuit has ____ ** and** ____ sources,

R_{th} (Thévenin) = ?

If the circuit has __independent__*and*** dependent** sources,

R_{th} (Thévenin) = R_{N} = V_{oc}/I_{sc}

I_{sc} = ?

I_{sc} =

Ohm’s Law = V/R

This is a Thévenin equivalent circuit, what would a Norton equivalent circuit look like?

If the circuit has ** only** ____ sources,

V_{th} = ?

I_{N} = ?

R_{th} = R_{n} = ? ⇒ ___ _ ______ __ ___ _______

If you had a **voltage** **source** you work out the…?

If you add a **current** **source** you work out the…?

If the circuit has *only*** dependant** sources,

V_{th} = 0

I_{N} = 0

R_{th} = R_{n} = ? ⇒ __add a source to the circuit__

If you had a **voltage** **source** you work out the…__current__

If you add a **current** **source** you work out the…__voltage__

There are **3 different scenarios** to find **R _{n} (R Norton)** and

**R**, how do you do it when there’s…

_{Th}(R Thévenin)- Only
sources__independent__ - Only
sources__dependent__ - Both
and__dependent__sources__independent__

There are **3 different scenarios** to find **R _{n} (R Norton)** and

**R**, how do you do it when there’s…

_{Th}(R Thévenin)- Only
sources__independent__

* Kill all the sources and find R_{eq} - Only
sources__dependent__

- Add a
**source**- If it’s a
**current****source**you find**voltage**using**Ohm’s****law**, - If it’s a
**voltage****source**you find**current**using**Ohm’s**law

- If it’s a

- Both
and__dependent__sources__independent__

* V_{oc}/I_{sc}

V_{th} = ?

I_{N} = ?

V_{th} = V_{oc}

I_{N} = I_{sc}

What would the Thévenin equivlent circuit look like?

What would the Norton equivalent circuit look like?

What is the **superposition principle?**

The **superposition principle** states that the **total response** is the **sum of the responses** to each of the **independent** **sources** **acting** **individually**

The thèvenin voltage is equal to the…?

…open circuit voltage

V_{t} = V_{oc}

When sources are zeroed, current sources become ____ ____ and voltage sources become ____ _____

When sources are zeroed, current sources become ** open circuits** and voltage sources become

__short circuits__P_{avg} = ? = ?

P_{avg} = V^{2}_{rms}/R = I^{2}_{rms}R

Total energy absorbed, w = ?

w = ∫ p(t) dt

What resistance value should be chosen for RL to achieve maximum power transfer from the circuit to the load?

The **Thévenin equivalent resistor**