Flashcards in Anatomical Clinical Correlates Deck (53):
Failure of Pleuroperitoneal Folds to form properly leading to Foramen of Bochdalek (mainly left side) is what condition?
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (Which can lead to pulmonary hypoplasia)
Positive for Psoas Sign Test suggests which of the following clinical conditions?
Irritation to the Illiopsoas Muscle
Medical imagining detects large mass in the area closely related to pancreas, descending duodenum, and stomach on the left side of the mid line. This is most likely an...
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Damage of Superior Hypogastric Plexus can lead to what condition?
Retrograde Ejaculation (Semen deposited into bladder vs urethra
Injury to Inferior Hypogastric Nerve below Sacral Promontory can lead to what parasympathetic dysfunctions?
Erectile dysfunction and Urinary Retention. (Caused by lack of innervation from Pelvic Splanchnic Nerve)
What nerve is at risk due to Ovarian Cyst or during an oophorectomy (Surgical removal of Ovary) ?
Which procedure is preformed to avoid uncontrollable tearing during child birth?
Episiotomy (Surgical Cut in Perineum)
An Upper or proximal GI tract bleed will lead to what 2 clinical conditions?
Hematemesis - Vomiting of blood (coffee ground appearance)
Melena - Dark, sticky, tarry stool
An Lower or Distal GI tract bleed will lead to what clinical conditions?
Hematochezia - Fresh, bright red blood in stool.
What is Peyer's Patches?
Aggregated Lymphoid nodules in the ileum.
A patient is ,experiencing Periumbilical Pain. This may suggest what clinical condition?
A patient is experiencing pain between her ASIS and umbilical region, approximately 1/3 distancr from her Anterior superior iliac spine. What is the name of the anatomical location? What is the most likely clinical condition?
Anastomosis between the foregut and midgut involve which arteries?
Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery
Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery
Anastomosis between the midgut and hindgut involve which arteries?
Middle colic artery
Left colic artery
(Together known as Marginal artery of Drummond)
Where is the most common point of colonic Ischemia?
At the splenic flexure (Also known as Sudeck's Point)
-Liver cells replaced with fibrous scar tissue
-Liver becomes firm
-Hepatic Circulation becomes inhibited
-Usually treated with portal to caval shunt
What clinical condition presents the symptoms above?
Name the 3 relevant Portocaval Anastomosis (Clinically relevant anastomosis when portal hepatic vein is blocked and blood must reverse its way to IVC)
Gastroesophageal - Involving Left gastric to esophageal branch veins.
Rectoanal - Involving Superior rectal to middle/inferior rectal vein.
Paraumbilical - Involving Paraumbilical to epigastric vein.
Name one relevant anastomosis during severe portal Hypertension ...
Left/Right gastric veins to esophogeal Veins.
What is portal Hypertension?
Increased blood pressure of blood travelling through portal vein.
(This can cause blockage as well as anastomosis)
Explain Caput Medusa ...
This is portal Hypertension causing retroflow from paraumbilical veins to to epigastric veins leading to dialysis of epigastric veins
What are the 2 shunts made in order to treat/reduce a case of Caput Medusa?
1st Shunt - Portal vein to IVC
2nd Shunt - Splenic Vein to Left Renal Vein
What are hemorrhoids?
Name the anastomosis that may be involved...
Swollen veins in rectal canal.
(Can cause anastomosis from inferior rectal veins to superior rectal veins)
Internal Hemorrhoids - Above pectinate line is painless due to visceral innervation.
External Hemorrhoids - Below pectinate line is painful due to somatic innervation.
What is peritonitis?
Inflammation of Peritoneum
What is Ascites?
Excess fluid (Ascitic fluid) within peritoneal cavity
Usually treated by paracentesis (Surgical drainage of ascitic fluid)
Explain how peritoneal Dialysis work during renal failure ...
Sterile fluid is introduced into peritoneal cavity to alter concentration gradient allowing waste products such as urea from blood to diffuse into peritoneal cavity. These waste products are then extracted from peritoneal cavity to compensate for renal system.
What is an effective way to minimize blood loss during hepatic surgery?
Clamping portal triad
(Found within hepatoduodenal ligament and consist of hepatic proper artery, Hepatic Portal Vein, Common bile duct)
What is Omental Bursa herniation?
Ability of small intestine passing through omental foramen (foramen between greater and lesser sac) and being trapped/entangled in lesser sac.
What are Peritoneal Adhesions?
Fibrous bands connecting from visceral peritoneum to abnormal places such as adjacent organ or parietal peritoneum.
(Can lead to chronic pain or intestinal obstruction)
What nerves are at risk during an appendectomy (removal of appendix)?
Where is pain referred to during initial and acute appendicitis?
Initial - T10 Dermatome (general / visceral)
Acute - McBurney's Point (localized / somatic)
What bone structures protect the Spleen?
Left ribs 9 / 10 / 11
What is Volvulus?
Twisting and rotation of mobile loops of intestinal tract.
(Usually associated with sigmoid colon, can lead to ischemia/constipation)
What is Intussuception?
The invagination of one bowel segment into a distal segment of the gastrointestinal tract .
(Usually happens at the ilieocecal valve/junction)
What is Colonic Diverticulosis?
Out-Pocketings of the mucosa of Colon.
What is Crohn Disease?
Chronic inflammation of the grastointestinal tract
What is Troisier's sign and what does it indicate?
Enlarged left supraclavicular lymph nodes which indicate abdominal cancer.
Distinct lesions found in stomach, pyloric canal, or duodenum is a case of what clinical condition?
What is pyrosis?
Gastric esophageal reflux disorder do to insufficient inferior esophageal sphincter. Can also be associated with hiatal hernia.
What is Hiatal Hernia?
In-vagination of stomach into abdominal esophagus.
Pancreatic head cancer can lead to what obstructions and symptoms.
Obstruction of the common bile duct and hepatoprancreatic ampulla (Wirsung)
Can present as Jaundice (yellowing of eyes) due to bile retention.
and/or Alcoholic Stool (light grey stool)
Pancreatic body/tail cancer leads to which two obstructions?
Obstruction of the IVC and Hepatic Portal Vein
What is the superior/medial/lateral boundaries of the cystohepatic triangle (Triangle of Calot)
Superior Boarder - Liver
Medial Boarder - Common Bile Duct
Lateral Boarder - Cystic Duct
What is a Cholecystectomy?
Surgical removal of the gall bladder.
Stone - like deposits formed in gall bladder.
(Hepatopancreatic ampulla is a common place for stones to get lodged)
Laceration of the middle meningeal artery superficial to the dura matter can lead to what clinical condition?
Laceration of the meningeal vein, cerebral vein, or bridging vein within subdura space can lead to what clinical condition?
Laceration of cerebral artery leads to what clinical condition?
(Found within subarachnoid space)
Can result in berry aneurysm
What is the difference in shape between an epidural hematoma and subdural hematoma on CT scans?
Epidural presence as Bi-concave shape
Subdural presence as Crescent shape
A fracture at the pterion can damage what artery and lead to what clinical condition?
Middle Meningeal artery leading to an epidural hematoma.
What are the boundaries of the le fort fracture I?
Maxillary to pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone (Separated palate)
What are the boundaries of a le fort fracture II?
Just below nasal bone to maxillary (Separate maxilla)
What are the boundaries of a le fort fracture III?
Maxillary to sphenoid and front zygomatic sutures