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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (92):
1

Fractured shaft of humerus - endangered

Axillary nerve

2

Level spinal cord ends

L1/2

3

Loss of saddle sensation

Corda equina

4

Referred pain to ear

Tonsils

5

Layer of the eye with most refractive power

Cornea

6

Inability to ad/abduct fingers

T1

7

Winged scapula due to injury of the...

Long thoracic nerve

8

Azygous vein drains into...

SVC

9

Knee reflex

L3/4

10

Jaw jerk nerve

Trigemnital

11

Falciform ligament

From the hilum of the liver to the anterior abdominal wall (remnant of the umbilical vein)

12

Lacteral pectoral nerve

Pectoralis major

13

Main lymphatic drainage of the leg

Great saphenous vein

14

Axillary nerve motor supply

Deltoid and teres minor

15

Transpyloric plane

Superior mesenteric artery origin
End of spinal cord
Pylorus of stomach
Neck of pancreas
Origin of portal vein
2nd part of duodenum
Sphincter of Oddi
Hilum of kidneys
Duodenal-jejunal flexure
Fundus of gallbladder
Tip of 9th costal cartilage
Hepatic and splenic flexure

16

Ankle jerk

L5/S1

17

Active hyperemia

Increase of blood flow to active tissues in the body
Smooth muscles of arterioles relax in response to local chemical factors

18

Arterial baroreceptors

Decrease firing to compensate for a sudden loss in arterial BP

19

Acute inflammation

Leukocytes

20

Chronic inflammation

Lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells

21

Cricothyroid puncture

Between cricoid and thyroid cartilages (C4-6)Complications: damage to vocal cords (hoarseness) and bleeding

22

Intercostal catheterisation

Pneumothorax, haemothorax, pleural effusion5th ICS anterior to mid axillary line, or 2nd ICS mid-clavicular line

23

Lumbar puncture

L3-4 (or below) into the subarachnoid space

24

Most likely zone of the prostate for carcinoma

Peripheral zone

25

Most likely zone of the prostate for BPH

Transitional zone

26

Thyroid surgery
Complications

Bleeding
Injury to recurrent laryngeal nerve
Hypoparathyroidism
Thyrotoxic storm
Injury to superior laryngeal nerve
Infection
Hypothyroidism

27

Posterior triangle of the neck

Contains the accessory nerve

28

Apical lung tumour - clinical features

Pain along the inner aspect of the armWasting of intrinsic muscles of the hand Constriction of the pupil

29

Horner's syndrome

PAM
Partial ptosis
Anhidrosis
Miosis (constriction of pupil)

30

Facial nerve - innervations

Motor - stapedius and facial musclesSensory - palate and anterior 2/3 of the tongueParasympathetic - lacrimal gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gland

31

Traction from an extradural haemorrhage
Nerve endangered

Oculomotor nerve

32

Compression in the superior orbital fissure above the fibrous ring
Nerve endangered

Oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal (V1)

33

Compression within the cavernous sinus
Nerves endangered

AbducensInternal carotid artery
Lateral walls - III, IV, V1, V2

34

Layers of abdominal wall
Medial to rectus sheath
Above arcuate line

SkinFascia External oblique
1/2 of internal oblique
Rectus abdominis
1/2 of internal oblique
Transversus abdominis
Transversalis fascia
Peritoneum

35

Layers of abdominal wall
Medial to rectus sheath
Bowel arcuate line

Skin
Fascia
External oblique
Internal oblique
Transversus abdominis
Rectus abdominis
Transversalis fascia
Peritoneum

36

Why does the left testis hang lower?

Due to venous drainage - testicular vein drains into the left renal vein on the left side, compared to the IVC on the right side. The left renal vein is smaller than the IVC, so has greater pressure

37

Large intestine
Histology

Taenia coli
Haustra
Omental appendices

38

Small intestine
Histology

Smaller in diameter
Consistently peritoneal

39

Jejunum
Differences from Ileum

More prominent mucosal folds
Thicker walls with larger windows
Vasa recta
Greater diameter
More vascular
Absorbs protein

40

Ileum Differences from jejunum

More fat in mesentery
Shorter arcades
More lymphoid
Absorbs B12, fats and bile salts

41

Foregut

Stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, abdominal part of oesophagus, proximal part of duodenum, liver, spleen
T7-9 - epigastric pain
Supplied by coeliac trunk

42

Midgut

Appendix, distal part of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, proximal part of large intestine (until splenic flexure)
T10 - umbilical pain
Supplied by superior mesenteric artery

43

Hindgut

Above the pelvic pain line - distal part of large intestine, descending colon, sigmoid colon, ureters, testes, ovaries, uterine tubes, bladder above trigone, body of uterus, supravaginal part of cervix
T10-L1 - suprapubic pain
Supplied by inferior mesenteric artery

44

Sites of portal-systemic anastamosis

Lower end of the oesophagus
Anal canal
Anterior abdominal wall
Posterior abdominal wall

45

Cauda equina compression - nerve roots

L3-S4

46

Internal iliac artery

Provides most of the blood supply to the pelvis
Major branch is the pudenal artery

47

External iliac artery

Gives rise to deep circumflex and inferior epigastric arteries and the femoral artery in the groin

48

Artery eroded by ulcer in first part of duodenum

Gastroduodenal artery

49

Artery eroded by ulcer in stomach

Splenic artery

50

Supply of the right coronary artery

SA node (55% of people)
AV node (90% of people)
Right atrium
Right ventricle (most of)
Diaphragmatic part of left ventricle
Posterior 1/3 of inter ventricular septum

51

Supply of the left coronary artery

SA node (45% of people)
AV node (10% of people)
AV bundle
Left atrium
Left ventricle (most of)
Part of right ventricle
Anterior 2/3 of interventricular septum

52

Sternal angle (Angle of Louis)

2nd costal cartilage
IV disc T4/5
Passage of thoracic duct from right to left
Aortic arch start and end
Tracheal bifurcation
End of azygous system into SVC
Ligamentum arteriosum
Loop of the recurrent laryngeal nerve around aortic arch Superior border of inferior mediastinum

53

Points where parietal pleura are vulnerable to penetrating injury

Above 1st rib
Right cost-xiphisternal angle (6th rib)
Costovertebral angle (below 12th rib)

54

Dorsal Scapular Nerve

Rhomboids
Levator scapulae   

55

Long Thoracic Nerve

Serratus anterior

56

Suprascapular nerve

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus 

57

Nerve to Subclavius

Subclavius

58

Lateral pectoral Nerve

1/2 Pectoralis Major

59

Medial pectoral Nerve

1/2 of pectoralis major
Pectoralis minor 

60

Musculocutaenous Nerve

Biceps brachii
Brachialis
Coracobrachialis 

61

Upper Subscapular nerve

1/2 of subscapularis

62

Lower subscapular nerve

Teres major
1/2 of subscapularis 

63

Thoracodorsalis nerve
(Middle Subscapular Nerve) 

Latissimus dorsi

64

Axillary nerve

Deltoid
Teres minor 

65

Protrusion of the medial border of the scapular. What nerve is injured

Long thoracic nerve

66

Fracture of the surgical neck of humerus. Best examination to assess neurological status

Sensation over deltoid

67

Fractured neck of humerous with damage to the axillary nerve. Function that is most likely to be impaired:

Abduction of the shoulder

68

Nerve and artery in the quadrangular space (humerus)

Axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral artery

69

Fracture of the clavical resulting in injury to the brachial plexus. Which part is likely to be damaged?

Divisions

70

Fracture of the humerus after a MVA. Results in:

Inability to extend the wrist due to radial nerve injury

71

Incorect use of crutches resulting in weakness in extension of theforearm and wrist and loss of sensation over the first web space on the dorsum of the hand. Nerve affected 

Radial nerve above the point of innervation of the triceps

72

Apical carcinoma with wasting of the dorsal interossei. This is due to compression of the:

T1 nerve root

73

Patient has pain and paraesthesia of the thumb, index and middle finger. Nerve most likely affected:

Median nerve

74

Where the sciatic nerve passes, in relation to the sciatic foramen and piriformis

Through the greater sciatic foramen and inferior to piriformis

75

Trendelenburg sign - nerve affected 

Superior gluteal nerve

76

Tight below the knee cast compressing the common fibular nerve. Structure most likely affected

Tibialis anterior

77

Foot drop and inability to evert the foot. Damage to:

Common fibular nerve

78

Patient presents with altered sensation of the lateral aspect of the foot. Nerve most likely affected:

Sural nerve

79

Biceps jerk nerve roots 

C5, C6

80

Triceps jerk nerve roots

C7, C8

81

Brachioradialis jerk

C5, C6

82

Knee jerk nerve roots

L3, L4

83

Ankle jerk nerve roots

S1, S2

84

Erb's palsy

Waiters tip - stretch/rupture of the upper trunk of the plexusC5,6 paralysis and wasting

85

Klumpke's palsy 

Claw handUlnar and radial nervesC8, T1

86

"Ape hand" at wrist

Median nerve 

87

"Hand of benediction" near the elbow

Median nerve

88

"Ulnar claw" at wrist 

Ulnar nerve

89

"Wrist drop"

Radial nerve

90

"Foot drop"

Fibular or sciatic nerve

91

Sciatic Nerve spinal levels

L4-S3

92

Sciatic Nerve
Innervation

Entire lower leg (besides the medial side) via the tibial and common fibular nerves