Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (41)
Function of the kidneys?
Help to control pH
Excretion of waste products
Synthesise some hormones
Metabolism of some things
What does the kidney metabolise?
Catabolism of insulin, PTH, calcitonin
How much water in a person?
Where is water stored and what quantities?
ICF - 25L
ECF - 15L
What happens if something has a high osmotic potential?
Water moves towards it
(Water moves from low to high osmolarity)
What is osmolality and osmolarity?
Osmolality - solute per kilo of solvent
Osmolarity - no. of osmoles of solute per litre
How many nephrons in each kidney?
What levels are the kidneys at? Which is higher?
Left is higher than the right
Where does the bladder sit in an adult and child
Adult - behind the pubic bone
Child - above the pubic bone
Course of a ureter?
Arise from renal pelvis on medial aspect of each kidney
Descend on front of psoas major passing laterally to medially
Cross pelvic brim near bifurcation of iliac arteries
Pass under uterine artery/ductus deferens
Down the pelvic sidewall
Insert on posterior surface of the bladder
List some bony landmarks for course of the ureters
Arise at L2
Descend in front of tips of lumbar transverse processes
Cross into pelvic brim roughly in front of sacroiliac joint
Enter bladder at level of ischial spines
Three sections of the ureters where kidneys are likely to cause an obstruction?
Junction of renal pelvis and ureter
Where ureters pass into wall of bladder
What surrounds the kidneys?
Renal fascia which surrounds the adrenal glands also
What part of the nephron is contained in the renal cortex?
Bowman's capsule and renal tubules except for part of the loop of Henle
What is contained in the renal medulla?
The loop of Henle and collecting duct
What happens at the renal papilla?
Where the urine empties from the renal pyramid into the minor calyxes
What percentage of cardiac output do the kidneys receive?
At which vertebral level do the renal arteries arise from the abdominal aorta?
List the blood supply to the kidneys
Abdominal aorta - renal artery - segmental artery - interlobar - arcuate - interlobular - afferent - glomerulus - efferent - peritubular capillaries (cortical nephron)/vasa recta (juxtamedullary nephron) - interlobular vein - arcuate vein - interlobar vein - renal vein
Where does the right renal artery pass in relation to the IVC?
Passes behind the IVC
Where do the renal arteries lie in relation to the renal veins?
The arteries are posterior to the veins
What are the four parts of the male urethra called?
At which vertebral levels would you find the poles of the left and right kidneys?
Left kidney - T11
Right kidney - T12
How long is the male urethra?
How long is the female urethra
Describe the bladder
Hollow, smooth muscle organ placed anteriorly in the pelvic cavity
Derived from the hindgut
Function of the bladder?
What are the folds in the internal lining of the bladder called?
How much urine can the bladder hold?
Up to 600ml