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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (41):
0

Function of the kidneys?

Control volume
Control osmolarity
Help to control pH
Excretion of waste products
Synthesise some hormones
Metabolism of some things

1

What does the kidney metabolise?

Vitamin D
Catabolism of insulin, PTH, calcitonin

2

How much water in a person?

40L

3

Where is water stored and what quantities?

ICF - 25L
ECF - 15L

4

What happens if something has a high osmotic potential?

Water moves towards it
(Water moves from low to high osmolarity)

5

What is osmolality and osmolarity?

Osmolality - solute per kilo of solvent
Osmolarity - no. of osmoles of solute per litre

6

How many nephrons in each kidney?

1.5 million

7

What levels are the kidneys at? Which is higher?

T11/T12
Left is higher than the right

8

Where does the bladder sit in an adult and child

Adult - behind the pubic bone
Child - above the pubic bone

9

Course of a ureter?

Arise from renal pelvis on medial aspect of each kidney
Descend on front of psoas major passing laterally to medially
Cross pelvic brim near bifurcation of iliac arteries
Pass under uterine artery/ductus deferens
Down the pelvic sidewall
Insert on posterior surface of the bladder

10

List some bony landmarks for course of the ureters

Arise at L2
Descend in front of tips of lumbar transverse processes
Cross into pelvic brim roughly in front of sacroiliac joint
Enter bladder at level of ischial spines

12

Three sections of the ureters where kidneys are likely to cause an obstruction?

Junction of renal pelvis and ureter
Pelvic brim
Where ureters pass into wall of bladder

13

What surrounds the kidneys?

Perinephric fat
Renal fascia which surrounds the adrenal glands also
Paranephric fat

14

What part of the nephron is contained in the renal cortex?

Bowman's capsule and renal tubules except for part of the loop of Henle

15

What is contained in the renal medulla?

The loop of Henle and collecting duct

16

What happens at the renal papilla?

Where the urine empties from the renal pyramid into the minor calyxes

17

What percentage of cardiac output do the kidneys receive?

20%

18

At which vertebral level do the renal arteries arise from the abdominal aorta?

L1/L2

19

List the blood supply to the kidneys

Abdominal aorta - renal artery - segmental artery - interlobar - arcuate - interlobular - afferent - glomerulus - efferent - peritubular capillaries (cortical nephron)/vasa recta (juxtamedullary nephron) - interlobular vein - arcuate vein - interlobar vein - renal vein

20

Where does the right renal artery pass in relation to the IVC?

Passes behind the IVC

21

Where do the renal arteries lie in relation to the renal veins?

The arteries are posterior to the veins

22

What are the four parts of the male urethra called?

Preprostatic
Prostatic
Membranous/pelvic
Spongy/phallic

23

At which vertebral levels would you find the poles of the left and right kidneys?

Left kidney - T11
Right kidney - T12

24

How long is the male urethra?

20cm

25

How long is the female urethra

4cm

26

Describe the bladder

Hollow, smooth muscle organ placed anteriorly in the pelvic cavity
Derived from the hindgut

27

Function of the bladder?

Collection
Temporary storage
Expulsion
Of urine

28

What are the folds in the internal lining of the bladder called?

Rugae

29

How much urine can the bladder hold?

Up to 600ml

30

What connects the apex of the bladder to the umbilicus?

Median umbilical ligament
(Remnant of the urachus)

31

Where is the trigone?

The triangular area located within the fundus of the bladder.
Marks orifices by ureters and urethra

32

Which sphincter are women missing in the bladder?

Internal
Only have an external

33

Where is the detrusor muscle?

In the bladder wall

34

Why are the fibres of the detrusor muscle arranged in different directions?

Retains structural integrity when the bladder is stretched

35

What does the detrusor muscle do?

Contracts during micturition

36

Under what part of the autonomic nervous system is the bladder under the control of?

Parasympathetic and sympathetic

37

What muscle is the internal urethral sphincter composed of?
Which branch of the nervous system controls it?

Circular smooth muscle fibres
Autonomic control

38

What muscle is the external urethral sphincter composed of?
Which branch of the nervous system controls it?

Skeletal
Voluntary/somatic

39

Function of the internal urethral sphincter?

Prevents seminal regurgitation during ejaculation

40

Arterial supply of the bladder?

Superior vesicle branch of the internal iliac (primarily)
Obturator and inferior gluteal arteries also contribute branches

Males: supplemented by inferior vesicle artery
Females: supplemented by vaginal arteries

41

Venous drainage of the bladder?

Vesicle venous plexus draining into the internal iliac vein aka hypogastric vein