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Semester 4 (NME) > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (91):
1

What nerve supplies SNS innervation to the foregut?

Greater splanchnic nerves (T5 to T9)

2

What nerves supplies PNS innervation to the foregut?

Vagus

3

What nerve supplies SNS innervation to the midgut?

Lesser splanchnic (T9 to T11)

4

What nerve supplies PNS innervation to the midgut?

Vagus

5

What nerve supplies SNS innervation to the hindgut?

Lumbar splanchnic (T12-L2)

6

What nerve supplies PNS innervation to the hindgut?

Pelvic splanchnic (S2-S4)

7

What hiatus' are found in the diaphragm?

T8- Inferior Vena Cava
T10- Oesophagus and vagus nerve
T12- Abdominal aorta and azygous/ hemiazygous vein, thoracic duct

8

Name 3 distinguishing characteristics of a lumbar vertebrae?

Fat bodies
Big quadrangular spinous process (point straight)
Triangle foreamen

9

What are the right and left crura of the diaphragm?
(Crus)

From inf diagram to vertebral bodies
Meet in the midline to form the median arcurate ligament which surrounds the aorta

10

What is the name of the triangle of smooth muscle in the bladder, what are its corners?

Trigone
Urethra and L/R ureters entering at an oblique

11

In the pelvic the ureters are crossed by what? (In M and F)

M: Ductus deferens
F: Uterine artery

12

What key ligament anchors the bladder, where does it attach?

Median umbilical ligament
From apex of bladder to umbilicus

13

The base (fundus) of the bladder is what shape and points in what direction?

Inverted triangle
Base points posterioinferiorly

14

What tissue surrounds the bladder?

Endopelvic fascia (loose fatty areolar tissue)

15

What is the most inferior part of the bladder and how is it secured?

Neck (most fixed part of bladder)- When bladder fills it enlarges upwards
In M: Puboprostatic ligament
In F: Pubovesical ligament

16

What is the most inferior part of the bladder and how is it secured?

Neck (most fixed part of bladder)- When bladder fills it enlarges upwards
In M: Puboprostatic ligament (Paired fibromuscular band)
In F: Pubovesical ligament (Paired fibromuscular band)

17

What is the name of the muscle in the bladder and what type of muscle is it? What feature allows it to stretch?

Detrusor muscle
Smooth muscle (PNS makes it contract, SNS= relax)
Contains rugae so it can distend without rise in internal pressure

18

What type of epithelium lines the bladder?

Transitional epithelium
(Changes between columnar and squamous)

19

What artery/ veins supplies the bladder?

Sup vesicle art/vein and inf vesicle art/vein (M)/Vaginal art/vein (F)
From internal iliac artery

20

What supplies PNS to the bladder?

Pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-S4)

21

What supplies SNS to the bladder?

Hypogastric nerve (T12-L2) = Relaxation (urinary retention)

22

What supplies somatic innervation to the bladder?

Pudendal nerve (S2-S4)

23

What are the 5 layers of the bladder wall?

Mucosa
Submucosa
Inner longitudinal muscle layer
Circular muscle layer
Outer longitudinal muscle layer

24

What forms the IUS in females?

The 3 layers of the detrusor muscle

25

What two glands surround the external urethral orifice in females?

Skene's muscus glands

26

What does the urethra pass through in the pelvic floor?

Urogential diaphragm

27

What makes the trigone different to the rest of the bladder?

No rugae

28

At what level does the ureter cross the pelvic brim?

Where the common iliac bifurcates
(L5/S1)

29

What vessel does blood supply to the foregut?

Coeliac trunk

30

What vessel does blood supply to the midgut?

Superior mesenteric artery

31

What vessel does blood supply to the hindgut?

Inferior mesenteric artery

32

What vessel does blood supply to the hindgut?

Inferior mesenteric artery

33

The greater splanchinc nerve comes from which levels and leads to which ganglion? What does it supply?

T5-T9
Coeliac ganglion
Stomach/ liver/ pancreas/ suprarenal glands/ bile duct

34

The lesser splanchnic nerve comes from which levels, leads to which ganglion and supplies what?

T10-T11
Aortico-renal ganlion
(Does kindeys and ureters)

35

The least splanchnic nerve comes from which levels, leads to which ganglion and supplies what?

T12
Superior mesenteric ganglion (joined by lesser splanchnic also)
ALL MIDGUT

36

The lumbar splanchnic nerve comes from which levels, leads to which ganglion and supplies what?

L1-L3
Inferior mesenteric ganglion
Colon

37

The hypogastric nerve comes from which levels, leads to which ganglion and supplies what?

L4-L5
Hypogastric ganglion
Rectum, bladder, prostate

38

The sacral nerves come from which nerve roots? What purpose do they serve?

S1-S4
Also supply rectum, bladder and prostate

39

How do hypogastric and sacral nerves join?

Sacral plexus meets nerves from the POST GANGLIONIC hypogastric nerves
(Supplies bladder, prostate and rectum)

40

The sympathetic chain and its splanchnic nerve branches contain which of the below?
Afferent fibres ---- Efferent fibres --- Both --- None

Both

41

The inferior thyroid artery comes from where?

Subclavian - Thyrocervical trunk - Inf thyroid

42

The superior thyroid artery is a branch of...?

The external carotid artery

43

The ureter begins its descent to the bladder by running along the medial aspect of which muscle?

Psoas Major

44

The longitudinal muscle layer of the large intestine forms three distinct muscle bands. What are these bands of muscle called?

Teniae Coli

45

Which blood vessels supply the liver with blood?

Hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein

46

What is the main type of cell in the liver?

Hepatocyte

47

From which spinal segments do the parasympathetic nerves that supply the anal and urethral sphincters arise?

S2/S3/S4

48

Which nerve supplies taste to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

Glossopharyngeal

49

What are the attachements of the greater omentum?

Greater curve of stomach
Transverse colon

50

What are the three main divisions of the coeliac artery?

Left gastric
Common hepatic
Splenic

51

What is the name for the smooth muscle in the bladder wall?

Detrusor

52

At which vertebral level does the oesophagus begin?

C5/C6

53

What are the 4 layers of the adrenal glands and what does each layer produce?

Zona glomerulosa- Aldosterone
Zona Fasiculata- Cortisol
Zona Reticularis- Sex steroids (DHEA/ androstenedione)
Medulla- Noradrenaline/ adrenaline (Symp stimulation)

54

Where would you find the transpyloric plane?

Hand breath under xipisternum
(Above subcostal plane)

55

What are the names of the 4 planes use to create the 9 regions of the abdomen?

Subcostal plane
Transtubercular plane
R midclavicular plane
L midclavicular plane

56

What is the roof of the abdominal cavity?

Diaphragm

57

What are langers lines?

Cleavage lines in the skin show the orientation of collagen fibres in the dermis
Surgically always cut parallell to lines

58

Which direction to langers lines run in the abdomen?

Horizontally

59

What are the layers (running superficial to deep) of the anterior abdominal wall?

Skin- Epidermis and dermis (with BV's/ nerves)
Superficial fascia- Campers/ Scarpa's
Deep fascia- thin connective tissue
Flat muscles x3
Vertical muscles x2

60

What are the two layers of the superficial fascia of the ant abdominal wall?

(Skin)
CAMPER'S - Outer fat
SCARPA'S- Inner membranous layer (lower 1/3 only)
(Deep fascia)

61

What are the three flat muscles of the ant abdominal wall?

External oblique (fibres infromedial)
Internal oblique (fibres superiomedial)
Transversus abdominis (transverse fibres)
All aponeourose in midline to form LINEA ALBA

62

What is the linea alba?

An aponeurosis in the midline of the ant abdo wall, formed by the interwoven fibres of the three flat muscles

63

What are the two vertical muscles of the ant abdo wall?

Rectus abdominis (forms '6 pack')
Pyramidalis (triangle, superficial to RA, base attaches to pubis)

64

What is the rectus sheath?

Formed by apenurosis of the three flat muscles, it encloses rectus abdominis and pyramidalis

65

What makes up the ant and post walls of the rectus sheath above the costal margin?

Ant: External oblique only
Post; Ribcage

66

What makes up the ant and post walls of the rectus sheath between costal margin and ASIS?

Ant: External and half internal oblique
Post : Half internal oblique and transversus abdominis

67

What makes up the ant and post walls of the rectus sheath below the ASIS?

All three (external/ internal oblique and transversus abdominis) move to anterior wall
NO POST WALL

68

Which arteries and veins supply the ant abdominal wall?

Sup epigastric art/ vein
Inf epigastric art/ vein

69

What innervates the anterior abdominal wall?

Thoraco-abdominal nerves
(From ant of 7-11th intercostal nerves)

70

What are the two layers of the peritoneum and what are they made of?

Visceral and parietal
Made of simple squamous epithelium
(KNOWN AS MESOTHELIUM)

71

What is the term for increased volume of perioneal fluid?

Acscities

72

What is the lesser sac of the abdomen?

The omental bursa
Lesser omentum (less curve stomach - liver)
Greater omentum (greater curve of stomach and then over intestines)

73

What is the greater sac of the periotenum?

The general cavity of the abdomen

74

What is the role of the epiploic foreamen?

Connects greater and lesser sacs of the abdomen

75

What is the mesentary?

A fold of peritoneum on the post abdo wall which attaches organs to the abdo wall

76

What is an intraperitoneal organ?
(9 examples)

Completely covered in visceral peritoneum
(Stomach, liver, spleen, first 5cm duodenum, jejunum, cecum, appendix, transverse and sigmoid colons)

77

What is a retroperiotneal organ?
(10 examples)

Only have peritoneum anteriorly
(2nd part duodenum, ascending and descending colon, pancreas (except tail), kidneys, adrenals, uterus, IVC, aorta, oesophagus)

78

What vein drains the foregut?

Hepatic portal vein

79

What vein drains the midgut?

Hepatic portal vein

80

What vein drains the hindgut?

Heaptic portal vein

81

What are the start and end points of the foregut?

Mouth to duodenum major papillae

82

What are the start and end points of the midgut?

Duodenal major papillae to 2/3 along transverse colon

83

What are the start and end points of the hindgut?

Distal 1/3 transverse colon to rectum

84

What is an enema?

Fluid injection into the colon via the rectum

85

At what level does the abdominal aorta split into the common iliac's?

L4

86

At what level does the IVC form?

L5

87

The left and right Kidneys lie between which vertebral levels?

Left: T11-L2
Right: T12-L3

88

Free fluid in the abdomen must come from which type of organ?

Intraperitoneal

89

What is an alternative name for, and where is the pouch of douglas?

Recto-uterine pouch
(Between uterus and rectum)
Extension of peritoneum

90

How does the appendix recieve blood supply?

From the appendicular artery
- Travels down appendix
- So if inflammation then the artery is occluded and the tissue becomes necrosed

91

What are the first and second most common positions to find the appendix in?

1) Retrocecal
2) Pelvic