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Semester 4 (NME) > Liver > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver Deck (111):
1

In which anatomical region is the liver found?

R hypochondric and epigastric area

2

Which ligament splits the R/L lobe of the liver and connects to the peritoneum?

Falciform ligament

3

Which ligament is a remnant of the umbilical vein, where is it found?

Ligamentum teres
On free border of falciform lig

4

Which ligaments attach the superior border of the liver to the diaphragm?

Coronary L/R (central to liver midline)
Triangular L/R (lateral to liver midline)

5

What are the 4 lobes of the liver?

Right + Left
Quadrate (between ligamentum teres and gall bladder fossa)- Most inferior
Caudate (between sagittal fissue and groove for IVC)

6

What are the two surfaces of the liver?

Diaphragmatic (ant/ sup/ post)
Visceral (inf)

7

Where are the subphrenic recesses found?

Between liver and diaphragm (either side of falciform lig)

8

Where are the subhepatic recesses found?

Between liver and transverse colon

9

Which ligaments form the lesser omentum?

Hepatoduodenal and hepatogastric

10

What is morrisons pounch?

R subhepatic space between liver and R/kidney
- Deepest part of peritoneum when lying supine so where fluid is most likely to collect

11

What is found in the right sagittal fissue?

Groove for IVC and gallbladder

12

What is found in the left sagittal fissure?

Groove for ligamentum teres and ligamentum venosum (remnant of ductus venosus in fetus)

13

The horizontal groove contains the porta hepatis, what is the PH and what passes through it?

Its a ~ 5cm fissue, several structures pass through:
Hepatic portal vein/ hepatic artery proper (in)
Common bile duct (out)
Sympathetic nerves (to T7)
Hepatic branch (CN X)

14

What surrounds the liver?

Glissons capsule
Consists of t2 collagen and has lots of pain fibres

15

Where does pain from the liver refer to?

Upper R quadrant

16

Where does the liver receive blood from?

Hepatic artery proper (branch of common hepatic)- 25%
Hepatic portal vein - 75%

17

How does the hepatic artery proper arise?

AA > coeliac trunk > common hepatic > hepatic proper

18

What is the venous drainage to the liver?

3 hepatic veins to IVC

19

What supplies SNS and PNS to the liver?

SNS: From T7 (hepatic/ coeliac plexus)
PNS: Vagus and R phrenic nerve

20

What does SNS stimulation of the liver do?

Increased glycolysis
(More glucose breakdown)

21

What do both the hepatic artery proper and hepatic portal vein do just before reaching the porta hepatis?

Bifurcate (just inf to porta hepatis)

22

Where does the hepatic portal vein originate from and what veins contribute to it?

Just post to neck of pancreas
Sup mesenteric vein (from SI) joins splenic vein (which has been joined by inf mesenteric vein from LI)

23

What function begins at wk 4 in the embryo which initially takes place mainly in the liver?

Haematopoiesis
Liver is main site for 2nd to 7th month
Bone marrow kicks in ~5months

24

Where does the liver come from embryologically?

Liver bud on foregut around ~wk 3

25

What is the histological composition of the liver?

Around 100,000 lobules per lobe
Each lobule is a hexagon with a central vein @centre and a portal triad (hep art/ HPV/ bile duct) at each of the 6 corners

26

In a histological context, what are liver 'plates'?

1 cell thick lines of hepatocytes
Sinusoids (small veins) run between each plate to drain them into the central vein

27

What property of liver plates allows passage of large solutes from blood to interstital fluid?

No basement membrane

28

How to hepatocytes increase their surface area?

They are covered with microvilli

29

What is the function of stellate cells in liver?

Storage for retinoids (vit A) and source of growth factors for hepatocytes. They secrete collagen

30

Which phagocytic cells remove particulate material from portal blood in liver?

Kupffer cells

31

What is the function of Kupffer (stellate reticuloendothelial) cells?

Macrophage like cells which engulf pathogens and debris
They also store iron/tin/mercury

32

What is the function of LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase)?

Esterifies cholesterol

33

What type of hepatitis is uncommon in England, with cases largely confined to intravenous drug users? Most people being infected with this type are able to fight off the virus and fully recover within a couple of months?

Hep B

34

Which enzyme converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate?

Hexokinase aka glucokinase

35

At which stage does the substrate become committed to Kreb’s cycle?

Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coA

36

What is the path taken by blood which is in the sinusoids?

Sinusoid > central vein > hepatic veins > IVC

37

Which cells in the liver store iron/ tin and mercury?

Kupffer cells

38

What are bile caniculi?

Collect bile from hepatocytes

39

What path does bile take after leaving a hepatocyte?

Bile caniculi > bile ducts (in triad) > R/L hepatic ducts > common hepatic duct > EITHER:
Cystic duct > gall bladder
or common bile duct > duodenum

40

In addition to the classical lobule structure, what two other structural classification systems could be used in the liver?

Portal lobule- Triangles with central vein at each corner and portal triad in the centre (emphasises endocrine)
Acinus- elliptical unit with portal triad at centre and central vein at each pole (emphasises endocrine)

41

In the acinus classification there are 3 zones which represent metabolic activity, what are these zones?

1- PERIPORTAL (most oxygenated blood so most metabolic activity and most susceptible to damage)
2- MIDZONE
3- CENTRILOBULAR Most susceptible to ischemia

42

What lines sinusoids?

Discontinous, fenestrated epithelium
Kupffer cells
Persinusoidal (aka stellate) cells

43

Stellate cells are also known by what name?

Perisinusoidal
Ito cells

44

What cells contribute most to fibrosis when the liver is damaged?

Stellate (perisinusodal/ Ito) cells

45

Name three characteristics of hepatocytes?

Retain eosin stain
Large with round nuceli
Over 50% are tetraploid (4x chromosomes)

46

How do hepatocytes connect with perisinusoidal spaces and bile caniculi?

On both sides!

47

Where are perisinusoidal cells found?

Between hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells in the perisinusoidal space (of disse)

48

The liver receives approximately what % of the resting cardiac output?

30%

49

What is the livers role in protein synthesis?

Snythesises all plasma proteins except gamma globulins (it receives AA's from intestines/ muscles)

50

What is transamination?

Transfer of -NH2 group (usually from AA to keto acid)

51

What equation is catalysed by the enzyme "Alanine transaminase (ALT)"?

Glutamic acid + Pyruvic acid
=
Ketoglutamic acid + Alanine (An amino acid)

52

What is albumin and what is its function?

Makes up 50% of blood protein
Transports hydrophobic substances
Maintains osmotic pressure

53

Name 4 hydrophobic substances which are carried by albumin?

Drugs/ fatty acids/ bilirubin/ hormones

54

Which protein synthesised by the liver can indicate liver cancer or metastasis?

Alpha-fetoprotein
(Synth by yolk sac or rapidly dividing hepatocytes)

55

How are amino acids from tissue excreted?

First converted to keto acids (ketoglutarate etc)
Then eventually converted to urea and excreted

56

What do hepatocytes do following a meal?

Take up blood glucose and covert it to glycogen
(which is then either kept as glycogen or converted to lipid)

57

If blood glucose drops what two processes begin in hepatocytes?

Glycogenolysis (glycogen to glucose)
Gluconeogenosis (synth new glucose)

58

Gluconeogenesis creates new glucose from what substances?

Lactate
Glycerol (from fat)
Alanine and glutamine (from proteins)

59

Which enzyme facilitates glycogenolysis?

Glycogen phosphorylase
Removes 1 glycogen branch at a time by replacing it with phosphate

60

What is the Cori (Aka lactic acid cycle)?

Lactate > (re-oxidised) to Pyruvate > glucose

61

Which substances regulated the livers control of blood glucose?

Insulin (tries to lower blood glucose)
Glucagon (tries to increase blood glucose)
FROM PANCREAS

62

Which enzyme exists in the liver (and kidney cortex/ B cells of pancreas) and allows glucose to be released from cells?

Glucose 6-phosphatase

63

Most fat in the body is in what form?

Triglycerides

64

How do lipids travel to the liver?

Most bypass hepatic portal circulation and travel via lymph
(remember insoluble so need to be bound to proteins- lipoproteins)

65

What lipoproteins are synthesised by the liver (write them in decending size order)?

VLDL > IDL > LDL > HDL

66

What are chylomicrons?

The smallest lipoproteins (made mainly of triglycerides), they are secreted by enterocytes of the intestine then travel via lymph to the systemic circulation then to the liver

67

What happens to chylomicrons when they reached the liver?

Lipoprotein lipase enzymes hydrolyses them
(Into FA's and glycerol)
FA's are then stored or transported in plasma via albumin

68

Where is cholesterol produced? What regulates cholesterol production?

The liver
Regulated by current cholesterol levels

69

What is the mevalonate cycle?

Acetoacetyl-CoA + Acetyl Co-A =
HMG-CoA=
Mevalonate =
Cholesterol (via ~20steps)

70

Which vitamins can be stored in the liver?

Fat soluble (ADEK)
- Liver disease can lead to deficiency

71

Where is vitB12 absorbed and how is it stored?

Absorbed in terminal ileum with IF
2-3years worth can be stored in the liver

72

How is the liver involved with folate cycles?

Stores folate (enough for 2-3 months) and converts it to active form (tetrahydrofolate) when needed

73

Which deficiency is more common, folate or vitB12?

Folate (as liver can store months worth, not years)
Commonly seen in alcoholics/ cancer patients/ poor diet

74

Name 7 things stored in the liver?

Fat/ glycogen/ vit ADEK/ iron/ folate/ B12/ copper

75

What is deamination?

The stripping of amino (-NH2) groups from AA's
Done in protein breakdown (produces ammonia NH3)

76

How is ammonia converted to urea and what cells do this?

Urea (ornithine) cycle
Done by hepatocytes in periportal zone (zone 1)

77

What complication relating to NH3 results from liver failure?

Less conversion of ammonia to urea means a build up and ammonia toxicity
This can impair cerebral blood flow/ O2 use

78

What is bile and what is it's function?

Aqeous, alkaline, green/yellow liquid
Elimination of waste
Emulsifies fats to facilitate digestion and absorption

79

What are the components of bile?

Bile salts (aka bile acids)
Cholesterol/ phospholipids
Pigments (bilirubin/ biliverdin)
Water and electrolytes

80

What are the two main bile acids (bile salts)

Cholic acid
Chenodeoxycholic acid

81

What are micells?

Spheres formed by bile acids in water
(As they have hydrophillic and hydrophobic ends)

82

Where are bile salts produced and what are they produced from?

Hepatocytes (from cholesterol)

83

What is enterohepatic recycling?

95% bile salts are reabsorbed in the terminal ileum
(~6x per day)

84

How much bile acid to you produce each day?

500mg (to replace 5% lost in faeces)

85

How is bile acid synthesis controlled?

Absorption of BA's negatively feeds back to hepatocytes

86

How do bile acids help stimulate flow of bile?

Their osmolarity draws in water

87

What are the causes of liver cirrhosis?

Alcohol
Hep B/C
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

88

What are some of the common presenting S+S for liver cirrhosis?

~40% asymptomatic until complications
Oedema/ ascities (due to low albumin)
Easy bruising (due to low vit K)
Osesophageal varies- vomit blood (due to portal HyperT)
Jaundice/ plamar erythema

89

Why can patients with liver failure experience gynacomastia?

Impaired hormone break down

90

Why can patients with liver failure experience leukonychia?

Low levels of albumin

91

What tests could be done to diagnose liver cirrhosis?

AST/ALT/ALP/ Bilirubin (all raised)
Gamma-GT is raised in alcoholics
Ultrasound

92

Why can patients with liver failure experience pruitus?

Excess bile salts causes itch

93

How much of the liver must be affected before cirrhosis is noticed?

80-90%

94

Name three complication of portal hypertension?

Ascities
Varicies (caput medusa/ spider naevi)
Splenomegaly

95

Why can patients with liver failure experience vomiting of blood?

Due to oesophageal varicies caused by portal hypertension

96

Name two treatments for itching in liver disease?

Antihistamines (Cetirizine, fexofenadine, or loratadine)
Colestyramine (binds to bile salts to stop re absorption)

97

How does unconjugated bilirubin travel in the blood?

Bound to albumin

98

What happens to unconjugated bilirubin when it reaches the liver?

It becomes conjugate with glucuronic acid
ka - bilirubin diglucuronide
(Catalysed by 'glucuronyl transferase' in smooth ER)

99

What happens to conjugated bilirubin in hepatocytes?

Actively transported in bile canaliculi > colon (small amount is lost into blood and excreted via urine)

100

What happens to bilirubin once it reaches the colon

Bacteria deconjugate and metabolize the bilirubin into colorless urobilinogen, which can be oxidized to form urobilin and stercobilin (gives faeces brown colour)

101

What is the clinical definition of jaundice?

Plasma bilirubin > 50umol/L

102

What are the most common causes of jaundice?

Haemolytic disease/ RBC destruction/ Sickle cell
Obstruction of bile ducts of hepatocyte damage

103

What is pre-hepatic jaundice?

HAEMOLYTIC (Unconjugated bilirubin)
Livers capacity to conjugate is overcome
Raised levels of unconjugated bilirubin

104

How can the urine reveal clues about whether jaundice is pre-hepatic or post-hepatic?

Pre-Hepatic: Unconjugated bilirubin is not soluble so doesn't go into urine
Post-hepatic: Conjugated bilirubin is soluble so turns urine dark (also turns stools pale)

105

Name two causes of post-hepatic jaundice?

Pancreatitis/ gall stones

106

What is post-hepatic jaundice?

OBSTRUCTIVE (Conjugated bilirubin)
Increase in conjugated bilirubin as bilary tree blocked and cholestasis occurs

107

Name two ways to differentiate between pre and post hepatic jaundice?

Itching (only in post-hepatic due to cholestasis)
Dark urine (only in post-hepatic- due to conjugated bilirubin)
Pale stools (only in post-hepatic- due to conjugated bilirubin)

108

What is hepatocellular jaundice?

Due to damage of hepatocytes
A mix between conjugated and un-conjugated bilirubin

109

What is Gilberts syndrome?

Reduced amounts of enzyme 'UDP-gluconrnyl transferase' leads to increased bilirubin and fatigue
Affects 2-7% of population

110

Jaundice with itching, dark urine and pale stools indicates what type of jaundice?

Post-hepatic
AKA OBSTRUCTIVE

111

How do mitochondria levels in hepatocytes differ from other cells?

Lots more mitochondria in hepatocytes