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Semester 4 (NME) > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (12):

What is the function of p53?

Normally has 20min half life, but when cell is stressed it dissociates from MSM2 to:
Stop cell cycle (inhibits CDK's), promote DNA repair genes and causes increased BAX/BAK (pro-apoptosis)


What is the Rb protein?

Retinoblastoma (TSG) - Coded by RB1 gene
Stops G1 to S transition by inhibiting E2F transcription factors
Inactive (hyperphosphorylated) in dividing cells


What is RAS?

Proto-oncogene coded for by KRAS/H-RAS genes
GTPase which increases MAPkinase cascades to increases proliferation
Can be stuck in active form by single point mutation


What is MYc?

A transcription factor for cycle progression


What are telomeres?

Continually degrade each time a cell divides to limit it's lifespan
Telemerase protects the telomers, it's switched off in normal cells but on in tumour cells


What is B-Catenin?

Proto-oncogene which binds to TCF to up-regulate production of MYC and cyclin D1


What is the DCC gene?

Deleted in colorectal cancer gene
Partly tumour suppressor


What is the SRC family?

Family of tyrosine kinases which are proto-oncogenes


What is the role of tyrosine kinases in cells?

Promote survival/ angiogenesis/ proliferation and invasion


What effect does DNA methylation have on genes?

Stops gene transcription


What is the TNM staging?

Tumour (0-4), Nodes (0-3), Metastasis (0 or 1)
Combined to give TNM stage I to IV


What does Tx or Nx mean in the TNM staging?

Can't be evaluated