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JL Neurology > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (94):
1

In multipolar neurones - where are the cell bodies found?

In the CNS

2

In unipolar neurones - where are the cell bodies found?

In PNS (dorsal root ganglion)

3

What are a collection of nerve cell bodies in the CNS called?

Nucleus

4

What are a collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS called?

Ganglion

5

What are the three special sensory CNs?

CN I, CN II and CN VIII

6

What are the four motor CNs?

CN IV, VI, XI and XII

7

What do spinal nerves supply?

The soma

8

From teh intervertebral foramina what do spinal nerves connect with the structures of the soma via?

Rami

9

What nerve comes out above C2?

C2

10

What nerve comes out above T4?

T3

11

Where do all sensory axons pass from the spinal nerve to?

The posterior root then into posterior rootleys, then into posterior horn of spinal cord

12

What si the location of cell bodies of primary afferent neurpnes?

Dorsal root ganglion

13

Where does crossover in the corticospinal tract occur?

In medulla

14

What segment is the male nipple?

T4

15

What segment is the umbilicus?

T10

16

What spinal nerve segments cover posterior scalp, neck and shoulder?

C2-C4

17

What spinal nerve segments cover upper limb?

C5-T1

18

What are networks of intertwined anterior rami called?

Plexuses

19

What is a myotome?

Myotome of each spinal nerve is the skeletal muscles suppled with motor innervation by both the anterior and posterior ramus of that spinal nerve

20

Where does sympathetic outflow exit the spinal cords?

T1-L2

21

Only what segments of the spinal cord have lateral horns?

T1-L2 - for cell bodies of the next sympathetic neurones in the chain

22

Name a ganglion in the sympathetic outflow?

Paravertebral ganglion of sympathetic trunk

23

In the sympathetic outflow - what roots/rootlets does presynpatic axons leave?

Anterior

24

In relation to the sympathetic outflow and the heart - where do presynaptic axons synapse?

In T1 or cervical paravertebral ganglia

25

In relation to the sympathetic outflow and the lungs - where do presynaptic axons synapse?

In the upper throacic paravertebral ganglia

26

In relation to the sympathetic outflow and abdominopelvic organs - where does the presynaptic axons synapse?

In one of the prevertebral ganglia

27

In relation to the sympathetic outflow and adrenal medulla - where do presynaptic axons go?

Pass through the aorticorenal ganglion to synapse directly onto the adrenaline/noradrenaline secreting cells of adrenal medulla

28

What do the skin dimples on the back indicate the positions of?

Posterior superior iliac spines

29

List the four main extrinsic back muscles?

1. Trapezius
2. Latissimus dorsi
3. Levator scapulae
4. 2 x rhomboids

30

The intrinsic back muscles move the spine - what are they/

Erector spinae (superficial)
Transversospinalis (deep)

31

What are two muscles of posterior abdominal wall?

Psoas major
Quadratus lumborum

32

Extension of the spine is a function of what muscles?

Intrinsic bakc muscles

33

Flexion of the spine is the function of what muscles?

Psoas major and rectus abdominis

34

How many vertebrae in coccyx?

4

35

What is pain from facet joint transmitted via?

Posterior rami

36

Are there intervertebral discs bvetween C1 and C2?

no

37

What vertebraes all have a foramen in each transverse process?

Cervical - passage of vertebral arteries

38

In the sacrum what is there instead of intervertebral foraminae?

Anterior and posterior sacral foraminae

39

What is the palpable inferior end of the spinal canal?

Sacral hiatus

40

What is the internal capsule a common location of?

CVA

41

What dermatome is the C1 spinal nerve supply?

None - has no significant cutaneous sensory axons

42

C2 dermatome?

Back of scalp and adams apple

43

Dermatome supplying back of neck and jugular notch?

C3

44

C4 dermatome?

Clavicle and shoulder tip

45

C5 dermatome?

Badge patch

46

What dermatome supplies the thumb?

C6

47

What dermatome supplies the middle finger?

C7

48

C8 dermatome?

Little finger

49

Medial forearm supplying dermatome?

T1

50

What dermatome supplies medial arm and sternal angle?

T2

51

T4 dermatome?

Male nipple

52

T8 dermatome?

Xiphoid process

53

T10 dermatome?

Umbilixus

54

T12 dermatome?

Pubic symphysis

55

L1 dermatome?

Groin - hands in pockets

56

What dermatome supplies anterior thigh?

L2

57

What dermatome supples the knee (anterior)

L3

58

L4 dermatome?

Medial malleolus

59

L5 dermatome?

Dorsum of foot

60

What dermatome supplies the heel?

S1

61

What dermatome supplies the posterior knee?

S2

62

S3 dermatome?

Buttock

63

S4 dermatome?

Perineum

64

S5 dermatome?

Perianal skin

65

What are the nerve roots for the femoral nerve?

L2, L3 and L4

66

Posteriorly, what spinal nerves supply neck and scalp skin?

Posterior rami of spinal nerves C2-C8

67

What is the nerve point of the neck?

Midpoint of posterior border of SCM

68

What forms the cervical plexus?

Anterior rami of C1, C2, C3 and C4

69

What does the lesser occipital nerve (C2) supply?

Skin posterior to the external ear

70

What does the great auricular nevre supple (C2,3)?

Skin over angle of mandible and some of external ear

71

What supplies skin over anterior neck?

Transverse cervical (C2,3)

72

What nerves supply skin over clavicle and the shoulder tip, the latter explains referred pain from diaphragm to shoulder?

Supraclavicular nerve C3,C4

73

What nerves are not involved in plexus formation?

Anterior rami of T2-T12

74

What nerves supply the lower anterolateral trunk wall?

Iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves - formed from the bifurcation of anterior ramus of L1

75

What supplies upper anterolateral trunk wall?

Intercostal nerves - anterior rami of spinal nerves T2-T11

76

What is the name of T12 spinakl nerve?

subcostal nerve

77

What rami suply the posterior parts of teh back dermatomes - closest to the spine?

Posterior rami

78

What do T1 and T2 anterior rami get referred pain from?

Myocardium

79

What supplies the anatomical snuff box?

Cutaneous branches of radial nerve

80

What are nerve roots of radial nerve/?

(C5), C6, C7, C8, (T1)

81

What nerbe roots of ulnar nerve?

(c7), C8, T1

82

What nerve roots are median nerve?

(C5), C6, C7, C8, T1

83

L1, L2?

Genitofemoral nerve

84

L2, L3?

Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh

85

S1, 2, 3?

Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh

86

Obturator nerve?

L2,3,4

87

L4, L5, S1?

Superficial fibular nerve

88

L5?

Deep fibular nerve

89

L4 - S3?

Tibial nerve

90

Where is rhe upper motor neurone cell body found?

Within the primary somatomotor cortex of the precentral gyrus

91

What msucles does cervical plexus C1-C4 supply?

Neck postural an strap muscles, diaphragm

92

What muscles does brachial plexus supply?

Upper limb, extrinsic back muscles

93

What muscles do T2-L3 motor axons supply?

Postural back muscles
Inercostal muscles
anterolateral abdominal wall muslces

94

What muscles does lumbosacral plexus supply L1-S4?

Mulces of lower limb
Perineal skeletal muscles